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International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research
ESCI SJR: 0.206 SNIP: 0.446 CiteScore™: 0.5

ISSN Печать: 2152-5102
ISSN Онлайн: 2152-5110

Выпуски:
Том 46, 2019 Том 45, 2018 Том 44, 2017 Том 43, 2016 Том 42, 2015 Том 41, 2014 Том 40, 2013 Том 39, 2012 Том 38, 2011 Том 37, 2010 Том 36, 2009 Том 35, 2008 Том 34, 2007 Том 33, 2006 Том 32, 2005 Том 31, 2004 Том 30, 2003 Том 29, 2002 Том 28, 2001 Том 27, 2000 Том 26, 1999 Том 25, 1998 Том 24, 1997 Том 23, 1996 Том 22, 1995

International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research

DOI: 10.1615/InterJFluidMechRes.v43.i5-6.30
pages 390-403

Scaling Laws and Thermodynamic Analysis for Vascular Branching of Microvessels

Antonio Ferreira Miguel
Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Technology, University of Evora, Institute of Earth Sciences (ICT) Pole of Evora, Portugal

Краткое описание

When blood flows through small vessels, the two-phase nature of blood as a suspension of red cells (erythrocytes) in plasma cannot be neglected, and with decreasing vessel size, a homogeneous continuum model become less adequate in describing blood flow. Following the Haynes' marginal zone theory, and viewing the flow as the result of concentric laminae of fluid moving axially, the present work provides models for fluid flow in dichotomous branching composed by larger and smaller vessels, respectively. Expressions for the branching sizes of parent and daughter vessels, that provides easier flow access, are obtained by means of a constrained optimization approach using the Lagrange multipliers. This study shows that when blood behaves as a Newtonian fluid, Hess − Murray law that states that the daughters-to-parent diameter ratio must equal to 2−1/3 is valid. However, when the nature of blood as a suspension becomes important, the expression for optimum branching diameters of vessels is dependent on the separation phase lengths. It is also shown that the same effect occurs for the relative lengths of daughters and parent vessels. For smaller vessels (e. g., arterioles and capillaries), it is found that the daughters-to-parent diameter ratio may varies from 0.741 to 0.849, and the daughters-to-parent length ratio varies from 0.260 to 2.42. For larger vessels (e. g., arteries), the daughters-to-parent diameter ratio and the daughters-to-parent length ratio range from 0.458 to 0.819, and from 0.100 to 6.27, respectively. In this paper, it is also demonstrated that the entropy generated when blood behaves as a single phase fluid (i. e., continuum viscous fluid) is greater than the entropy generated when the nature of blood as a suspension becomes important. Another important finding is that the manifestation of the particulate nature of blood in small vessels reduces entropy generation due to fluid friction, thereby maintaining the flow through dichotomous branching vessels at a relatively lower cost.


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