Доступ предоставлен для: Guest
Портал Begell Электронная Бибилиотека e-Книги Журналы Справочники и Сборники статей Коллекции
Heat Transfer Research
Импакт фактор: 0.404 5-летний Импакт фактор: 0.8 SJR: 0.264 SNIP: 0.504 CiteScore™: 0.88

ISSN Печать: 1064-2285
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-6561

Том 50, 2019 Том 49, 2018 Том 48, 2017 Том 47, 2016 Том 46, 2015 Том 45, 2014 Том 44, 2013 Том 43, 2012 Том 42, 2011 Том 41, 2010 Том 40, 2009 Том 39, 2008 Том 38, 2007 Том 37, 2006 Том 36, 2005 Том 35, 2004 Том 34, 2003 Том 33, 2002 Том 32, 2001 Том 31, 2000 Том 30, 1999 Том 29, 1998 Том 28, 1997

Heat Transfer Research

DOI: 10.1615/HeatTransRes.2018026645
pages 717-737


Liang Li
Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian City, P.R. China
Maozhao Xie
Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian City, P.R. China
Ming Jia
Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian City, P.R. China
Hongsheng Liu
Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian City, P.R. China
Wu Wei
Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian City, P.R. China

Краткое описание

Understanding and predicting the fuel spray characteristics under trans/supercritical conditions is crucial to the design of rocket and diesel engines. In this paper, the effects of different supercritical environmental pressures on the thermodynamics and flow characteristics of a cryogenic liquid jet are investigated numerically. In particular, we discuss the evolution processes and characteristics of the mixing layer on the liquid jet surface. To facilitate the analysis, we use nitrogen as a material to simulate the supercritical jet under the Mayer's experimental conditions by a self-built CFD model. Results demonstrate that, with increasing the supercritical ambient pressures, the pseudoboiling temperatures are increased, but the pseudoboiling behavior is significantly weakened, while the intensity of thermal diffusion increases and also the length of the cold core becomes shorter. However, in the downstream of the cold core, the thickness of the mixing layer is increased due to the reduction of the damping introduced by the density gradient. Also, with increasing the supercritical ambient pressure and weakening of the pseudoboiling effect, the isothermal expansion is more and more replaced by a continuously rising temperature process. Consequently, the jet is more like a gaseous jet, and enters the self-similar state fast. Furthermore, an entropy analysis demonstrates that a high ambient pressure promotes the entropy yield and accelerates the mixing between the injected fluids and surrounding gas, so that the mixing layer gradually retracts toward the nozzle.


  1. Banuti, D.T. and Hannemann, K., The Absence of a Dense Potential Core in Supercritical Injection: A Thermal Break-Up Mechanism, Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 101–353, 2016.

  2. Banuti, D.T., Crossing the Widom-Line—Supercritical Pseudo-Boiling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 98, no. 2015, pp. 12–16, 2015.

  3. Bellan, J., Supercritical (and Subcritical) Fluid Behavior and Modeling: Drops, Streams, Shear and Mixing Layers, Jets and Sprays, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 329–366, 1999.

  4. Branam, R. and Mayer, W., Characterization of Cryogenic Injection at Supercritical Pressure, J. Propul. Power, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 342–355, 2001.

  5. Chehroudi, B., Talley, D., and Coy, E., Visual Characteristics and Initial Growth Rates of Round Cryogenic Jets at Subcritical and Supercritical Pressures, Phys. Fluids, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 850–861, 2002.

  6. Chen, C.J. and Rodi, W., Vertical Turbulent Buoyant Jets: A Review of Experimental Data, NASA Sti/Recon Technical Report A, vol. 80, 1980.

  7. Dahms, R.N. and Oefelein, J.C., Non-Equilibrium Gas–Liquid Interface Dynamics in High-Pressure Liquid Injection Systems, Proc. Combust. Inst., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 1587–1594, 2014.

  8. Dahms, R.N., Manin, J., Pickett, L.M., and Oefelein, J.C., Understanding High-Pressure Gas–Liquid Interface Phenomena in Diesel Engines, Proc. Combust. Inst., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1667–1675, 2013.

  9. Dukhin, S.S., Zhu, C., Dave, R., Pfeffer, R., Luo, J.J., Chávez, F., and Shen, Y., Dynamic Interfacial Tension Near Critical Point of a Solvent–Antisolvent Mixture and Laminar Jet Stabilization, Colloids Surfaces A, Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, vol. 229, nos. 1–3, pp. 181–199, 2003.

  10. Falgout, Z., Rahm, M., Wang, Z., and Linne, M., Evidence for Supercritical Mixing Layers in the ECN Spray A, Proc. Combust. Inst., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 1579–1586, 2014.

  11. Gan, Y. and Qiao, L., Evaporation Characteristics of Fuel Droplets with the Addition of Nanoparticles under Natural and Forced Convections, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 54, nos. 23–24, pp. 4913–4922, 2011.

  12. Givler, S.D. and Abraham, J., Supercritical Droplet Vaporization and Combustion Studies, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 1996.

  13. Hirschfelder, J.O., Curtiss, C.F., and Bird, R.B., Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1954.

  14. Jarczyk, M.M. and Pfi tzner, M., Large Eddy Simulation of Supercritical Nitrogen Jets, AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, pp. 145–153, 2013.

  15. Johnson, M.V., Zhu, G.S., Aggarwal, S.K., and Goldsborough, S.S., Droplet Evaporation Characteristics Due to Wet Compression under RCM Conditions, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 53, nos. 5–6, pp. 1100–1111, 2010.

  16. Kim, S.K., Choi, H.S., and Kim, Y., Thermodynamic Modeling Based on a Generalized Cubic Equation of State for Kerosene/ LOx Rocket Combustion, Combust. Flame, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 1351–1365, 2012.

  17. Kim, T., Kim, Y., and Kim, S.K., Numerical Study of Cryogenic Liquid Nitrogen Jets at Supercritical Pressures, J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 152–163, 2011.

  18. Lacey, J., Poursadegh, F., Brear, M.J., Gordon, R., Petersen, P., Lakey, C., Butcher, B., and Ryan, S., Generalizing the Behavior of Flash-Boiling, Plume Interaction and Spray Collapse for Multi-Hole, Direct Injection, Fuel, vol. 200, pp. 345–356, 2017.

  19. Langmuir, I., The Evaporation of Small Spheres, Phys. Rev., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 368–370, 1918.

  20. Li, L., Xie, M., Wei, W., Jia, M., and Liu, H., Numerical Investigation on Cryogenic Liquid Jet under Transcritical and Supercritical Conditions, Cryogenics, vol. 89, pp. 16–28, 2018.

  21. Lin, S.P. and Kang, D.J., Atomization of a Liquid Jet, Phys. Fluids, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 2000–2006, 1998.

  22. Lin, S.P. and Lian, Z.W., Mechanisms of the Breakup of Liquid Jets, AIAA J., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 120–126, 2012.

  23. Linstrom, P. and Mallard, W., Chemistry Webbook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, accessed August 30, 2018, from http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/fl uid, 2013.

  24. Mayer, W. and Tamura, H., Propellant Injection in a Liquid Oxygen/Gaseous Hydrogen Rocket Engine, J. Propul. Power, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1137–1147, 1996.

  25. Mayer, W., Schik, A., Schaffl er, M., and Tamura, H., Injection and Mixing Processes in High-Pressure Liquid Oxygen/Gaseous Hydrogen Rocket Combustors, J. Propul. Power, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 823–828, 2000.

  26. Mayer, W., Telaar, J., Branam, R., Schneider, G., and Hussong, J., Raman Measurements of Cryogenic Injection at Supercritical Pressure, Heat Mass Transf., vol. 39, nos. 8–9, pp. 709–719, 2003.

  27. Oefelein, J.C. and Yang, V., Modeling High-Pressure Mixing and Combustion Processes in Liquid Rocket Engines, J. Propul. Power, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 843–857, 1998.

  28. Oefelein, J.C., Dahms, R.N., and Lacaze, G., Detailed Modeling and Simulation of High-Pressure Fuel Injection Processes in Diesel Engines, SAE Int. J. Engines, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1410–1419, 2012.

  29. Oschwald, M., Smith, J.J., Branam, R., Hussong, J., Schik, A., Chehroudi, B., and Talley, D., Injection of Fluids into Supercritical Environments, Combust. Sci. Technol., vol. 178, nos. 1–3, pp. 49–100, 2006.

  30. Park, T.S., LES and RANS Simulations of Cryogenic Liquid Nitrogen Jets, J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 72, no. 12, pp. 232–247, 2012.

  31. Schmitt, T., Selle, L., Cuenot, B., and Poinsot, T., Large-Eddy Simulation of Transcritical Flows, Comptes Rendus Mécanique, vol. 337, nos. 6–7, pp. 528–538, 2009.

  32. Schmitt, T., Selle, L., Ruiz, A., and Cuenot, B., Large-Eddy Simulation of Supercritical-Pressure Round Jets, AIAA J., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 2133–2144, 2010.

  33. Sciacovelli, A., Verda, V., and Sciubba, E., Entropy Generation Analysis as a Design Tool—A Review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 43, pp. 1167–1181, 2015.

  34. Sierra-Pallares, J., Valle, J.G.D., García-Carrascal, P., and Ruiz, F.C., Numerical Study of Supercritical and Transcritical Injection Using Different Turbulent Prandlt Numbers: A Second Law Analysis, J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 115, pp. 86–98, 2016.

  35. Tahir, I., Siddique, W., Haq, I., and Qureshi, K., Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer to Supercritical Water in 2 × 2 Rod Bundle with Two Channels, Heat Transf. Res., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2018.

  36. Tamaki, N., Nishida, K., Shimizu, M., and Hiroyasu, H., Increase of the Atomization of a Liquid Jet by Cavitation in a Nozzle Hole, Nihon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu B Hen/Trans. JSME, Part B, vol. 63, no. 613, pp. 3144–3149, 2001.

  37. Telaar, J., Schneider, G., Hussong, J., and Mayer, W., Cryogenic Jet Injection: Description of Test Case RCM 1, Proc. of 2nd Int. Workshop on Rocket Combustion Modeling, Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR), Lampoldshausen, Germany, 2001.

  38. Thermodynamics Research Center, TRC Databases for Chemistry and Engineering-Catalogue, accessed August 30, 2018, from https://www.tamu.edu, 1999.

  39. Turns, S.R., An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

  40. Vasserman, A.A. and Nedostup, V.I., An Equation for Calculation of the Thermal Conductivity of Gases and Liquids, J. Eng. Phys., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 89–92, 1971.

  41. Verdiev, C.M. and Verdiev, D.C., Development of an Improved Mode of Heat Transfer of a Hydrocarbon Heat Carrier under a Supercritical Pressure in an External Acoustic Field of a Standing Wave Formed by Thermoacoustic Self-Oscillations of Pressure, Heat Transf. Res., vol. 37, no. 3, 2006.

  42. Wei, W., Xie, M., and Jia, M., Large Eddy Simulation of Fluid Injection under Transcritical Conditions: Effects of Pseudoboiling, Heat Transfer Res., vol. 48, no. 17, pp. 1545–1565, 2017.

  43. Wensing, M., Vogel, T., and Gotz, G., Transition of Diesel Spray to a Supercritical State under Engine Conditions, Int. J. Engine Res., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 227–235, 2015.

  44. Yang, V., Modeling of Supercritical Vaporization, Mixing, and Combustion Processes in Liquid-Fueled Propulsion Systems, Proc. Combust. Inst., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 925–942, 2000.

  45. Zéberg-Mikkelsen, C.K., Quiñones-Cisneros, S.E., and Stenby, E.H., Viscosity Modeling of Light Gases at Supercritical Conditions Using the Friction Theory, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 40, no. 17, pp. 3848–3854, 2001.

  46. Zong, N., Meng, H., Hsieh, S.Y., and Yang, V., A Numerical Study of Cryogenic Fluid Injection and Mixing under Supercritical Conditions, Phys. Fluids, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 4248–4261, 2004.

Articles with similar content:

Image Analysis of a Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall
International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research, Vol.24, 1997, issue 1-3
Masataka Arai, T. Ebara, Kenji Amagai
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.25, 2015, issue 12
Chang Sik Lee, Donggon Lee, Hyun Gu Roh, Kibong Choi
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.17, 2007, issue 6
Jaejoon Choi, Essam Abo-Serie, Choongsik Bae, Seoksu Moon
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.25, 2015, issue 12
Meagan Sung , Vincent McDonell
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.23, 2013, issue 5
Shenghua Yang, Zhiping Song, Zhuo Yao, Tianyou Wang