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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Импакт фактор: 2.9 5-летний Импакт фактор: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Печать: 0743-4863
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-660X

Выпуски:
Том 36, 2019 Том 35, 2018 Том 34, 2017 Том 33, 2016 Том 32, 2015 Том 31, 2014 Том 30, 2013 Том 29, 2012 Том 28, 2011 Том 27, 2010 Том 26, 2009 Том 25, 2008 Том 24, 2007 Том 23, 2006 Том 22, 2005 Том 21, 2004 Том 20, 2003 Том 19, 2002 Том 18, 2001 Том 17, 2000 Том 16, 1999 Том 15, 1998 Том 14, 1997 Том 13, 1996 Том 12, 1995

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v17.i4.10
41 pages

Chirality and Its Implications in Transdermal Drug Development

Indra Reddy
Texas A&M Health Science Center Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy
Thirumala R. Kommuru
Research and Development, Eurand America, Inc., Vandalia, OH 45377
Abdel-Azim A. Zaghloul
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech School of Pharmacy, 1300 Coulter, Amarillo, TX 79106
Mansoor A. Khan
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Amarillo, TX 79106

Краткое описание

Today more than 50% of marketed drugs are chiral. It has been well recognized that the stereochemistry of chiral drugs has a major influence on their pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological actions. Studies on enantiomeric differences in the percutaneous permeation of chiral compounds have been actively pursued in recent years. Stratum corneum, the rate-limiting barrier in transdermal permeation, is made up of keratin and ceramide, which could potentially provide chiral environment. Transdermal delivery is often facilitated by the presence of penetration enhancers, which act primarily by altering die diffusion by disrupting the highly ordered membrane structure or by affecting the partitioning behavior of the diffusant molecules. Enantioselective permeation was observed with some chiral excipients including terpene enhancers. While studies on crystalline structures of pure enantiomers and racemates are helpful in understanding the basis for differentiation of physicochemical properties, prediction and control of permeability of enantiomers and racemates based on the physicochemical characteristics would be highly beneficial. The flux characteristics of enantiomers and racemates appear to be dependent upon their thermodynamic properties. Such analyses have a predictive value and are useful in the transdermal drug product development of chiral molecules. While the decision to market either an individual enantiomer or racemate lies strictly under the control of the sponsors, the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration is very helpful. This review presents an overview of the skin structure and transport and a concise review of enantioselective permeation with or without chiral enhancers. Regulatory perspectives on chiral drug product development are also discussed.


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