Доступ предоставлен для: Guest
Портал Begell Электронная Бибилиотека e-Книги Журналы Справочники и Сборники статей Коллекции
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Импакт фактор: 1.404 5-летний Импакт фактор: 3.347 SJR: 0.706 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Печать: 1040-8401
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-6472

Выпуски:
Том 40, 2020 Том 39, 2019 Том 38, 2018 Том 37, 2017 Том 36, 2016 Том 35, 2015 Том 34, 2014 Том 33, 2013 Том 32, 2012 Том 31, 2011 Том 30, 2010 Том 29, 2009 Том 28, 2008 Том 27, 2007 Том 26, 2006 Том 25, 2005 Том 24, 2004 Том 23, 2003 Том 22, 2002 Том 21, 2001 Том 20, 2000 Том 19, 1999 Том 18, 1998 Том 17, 1997 Том 16, 1996 Том 15, 1995 Том 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v15.i3-4.70
pages 317-348

The Mucosal Adjuvant Activities of ADP-Ribosylating Bacterial Enterotoxins

Denis P. Snider
Department of Pathology, HSC-3N26H, McMaster University, 1200 Main St. W., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5

Краткое описание

The bacterial enterotoxins, cholera toxin and the heat labile toxin of E. coli, are well known adjuvants for mucosal immune response. Their common A chain mediates the toxigenic mechanism by causing ADP ribosylation of G proteins and subsequent elevation of cAMP in target cells. A large IgA and IgG antibody response to admixed protein antigen (Ag) is the hallmark of these adjuvants and is clearly associated with the A chain activity. Expansion of Ag-specific B and T cells, alteration of T cell cytokine production, and changes in regulatory T cells have been reported as adjuvant mechanisms. The B chain derivatives of these toxins can also weakly enhance immune response, especially if covalently associated with Ag and used for nasophyrangeal immunization. Importantly, these toxins or their B chain derivatives can alter the normal immune regulation that produces oral tolerance. This indicates that they modulate mechanisms operative between the mucosal and systemic immune systems. There are some discrepancies between in vitro models of CT or LT activity and in vivo manifestations of their adjuvant activities. Interpretation of current data regarding in vivo mechanism is hampered by an incomplete understanding of how mucosal B and T cells can interact with systemic lymphoid tissue and vice versa. More important, there is no clear understanding of the early effects of the toxins on the local (and draining) mucosal lymphoid tissues. This is especially true in the critical areas of antigen presentation, T and B cell activation, and cytokine production.

Ключевые слова: cholera toxin, heat-labile toxin, mucosal immunity, cAMP.

Articles with similar content:

The Mucosal Adjuvant Activities of ADP-Ribosylating Bacterial Enterotoxins
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.37, 2017, issue 2-6
Denis P. Snider
Mechanisms of Induction of Tolerance to Organ Allografts
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.20, 2000, issue 4
Bruce Hall
Immunologic Nonresponsiveness to Tumors
Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis, Vol.9, 1998, issue 1
Martine Extermann, Scott J. Antonia, Richard A. Flavell
The Impact of Extracellular Acidosis on Dendritic Cell Function
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.24, 2004, issue 5
Romina Gamberale, Juan Sabatte, Jorge Raul Geffner, Mirta Giordano, Monica Elba Vermeulen, Ana Ceballos, Diego Martinez, Analia Silvina Trevani
CD5 Signal Transduction: Positive or Negative Modulation of Antigen Receptor Signaling
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.20, 2000, issue 4
Josep M. Vila, Olga Padilla, Maria Simarro, Francisco Lozano, Javier Calvo, Kerry S. Campbell, Michael A. Bowen