Доступ предоставлен для: Guest
Портал Begell Электронная Бибилиотека e-Книги Журналы Справочники и Сборники статей Коллекции
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Импакт фактор: 1.404 5-летний Импакт фактор: 3.347 SJR: 0.706 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Печать: 1040-8401
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-6472

Том 40, 2020 Том 39, 2019 Том 38, 2018 Том 37, 2017 Том 36, 2016 Том 35, 2015 Том 34, 2014 Том 33, 2013 Том 32, 2012 Том 31, 2011 Том 30, 2010 Том 29, 2009 Том 28, 2008 Том 27, 2007 Том 26, 2006 Том 25, 2005 Том 24, 2004 Том 23, 2003 Том 22, 2002 Том 21, 2001 Том 20, 2000 Том 19, 1999 Том 18, 1998 Том 17, 1997 Том 16, 1996 Том 15, 1995 Том 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v27.i2.30
pages 153-166

Spectrum of the Early Xenograft Response: From Hyperacute Rejection to Delayed Xenograft Injury

Francesco L. Ierino
Departments of Nephrology and Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, 3084 Australia
Mauro S. Sandrin
Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, 3084 Australia

Краткое описание

Hyperacute xenograft rejection is a well-defined barrier to clinical pig-to-human xenotransplantation, and intense research in this area has identified potential solutions. In contrast, the next phase of xenograft injury, which can occur days to weeks later, has introduced a new series of immunological and nonimmunological barriers with complex mechanisms. This review addresses mechanisms of the immediate and delayed xenograft response with a focus on the relevant components. The key individual elements include carbohydrate antigens and natural antibodies to these epitopes, the role of the complement and coagulation systems, and the inflammatory cellular xenograft response that is predominantly mediated by the innate immune system. The vascular elements are central targets in this process, and the role of the endothelial cell is discussed. Important recent developments in xenotransplantation include the production of genetically modified pigs (deficient in αGal transferase and pigs transgenic for complement regulators) and a progressive understanding of xenograft-induced thrombotic microangiopathy, which threatens the long-term survival of transplanted pig organs and tissue. However, a clear standardized classification of the immunopathological mechanisms involved is essential. Further studies into the delayed xenograft response, using primates, are required before the routine use of pig organs for clinical transplantation.

Articles with similar content:

Immunologic Nonresponsiveness to Tumors
Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis, Vol.9, 1998, issue 1
Martine Extermann, Scott J. Antonia, Richard A. Flavell
Targeting of EPH Receptor Tyrosine Kinases for Anticancer Therapy
Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis, Vol.17, 2012, issue 2
Martin Lackmann, Eva Nievergall, Thomas Saunders
Post-Translational Regulation of Fas/CD95 in Cell Death and Survival: Role of Nitric Oxide
Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics, Vol.1, 2010, issue 4
Ali Bettaieb, Jean-Francois Jeannin, L. Leon-Bollotte, S. Plenchette-Colas, M. Lamrani
Immunopathogenesis of the Anti-Synthetase Syndrome
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.38, 2018, issue 4
Yurdagül Uzunhan, Baptiste Hervier, Vincent Vieillard, Catherine Gayed, Isabelle Cremer
Application of Natural Killer T Cells in Antitumor Immunotherapy
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.27, 2007, issue 6
Se-Ho Park, Changwan Hong