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ANALYSIS OF THE CARDIAC SYSTEM: TRANSPORT & ENERGETICS

DOI: 10.1615/ICHMT.2008.CHT.160
19 pages

Samuel Sideman
Departments of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering The Julius Silver Institute of Biomedical Engineering Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel

Amir Landesberg
Faculty of Biomedical Engineering Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, 32000

Efrath Barta
Departments of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering The Julius Silver Institute of Biomedical Engineering Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel

Abstract

The heart is the first organ to be function in the embryo. Life depends on the heart's ability to respond to the temporal demands of the organism for oxygen and nutrients for energetics and body heat maintenance. The cardiac system, denoted as the Cardiome, is a one-organ component of the Physiome, and represents the multi-parametric complexity of the multi-leveled cardiac system, from organ to molecules. The major elements of interest in this Organ can be grouped as Structure, State, Kinetics and Function .The next levels of interest, the Tissues, the Cells, the Organelles and the Molecular (including genetics) level can similarly be defined by structure, state, kinetics and function. Clearly, an awesome array of interacting micro and macro physiological parameters and functional characteristics! The uni-intra-level and inter-level interactions involve various transport phenomena (e.g. molecular diffusion, facilitated transport, trans-membrane channels, receptors etc) and energetics (e.g. metabolism, contraction, energy consumption, power and heat generation, electrical excitation, blood circulation etc) and, importantly, pathological factors affecting the cardiac function.
The presentation includes a short review of biochemical and physiological system analyses approaches and two examples of sub-systems analyses: 1) organ -level system analysis and determination of the transmural temperature distribution in the left ventricular wall, based on transmural mechanics (stress, pressure), hemodynamical (blood perfusion) and metabolical (local oxygen consumption) distributions, and 2) cellular level modeling involving intracellular mechanics, metabolism and energy control via calcium transfer between the cellular compartments, the cytosol and the intra-cellular organelles (sarcomere, mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum). The interrelation between intracellular power generation and energy consumption for whole organ functioning, contraction, metabolism and circulation will be highlighted. In summary: gaining insight and control of this complex multi-parameter, multi-leveled biological system requires the development of sophisticated programs and computational concepts for the integration of interacting functional models and application of novel experimental procedures.

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