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HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS IN CRYSTAL GROWTH

Alexander I. Zhmakin
Softimpact Ltd., P.O. 83, 194156; and Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

Abstract

An attempt is made to review the heat transfer and the related problems encountered in the simulation of single crystal growth. The peculiarities of conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer in the different melt, solution, and vapour growth methods are discussed. The importance of the adequate description of the optical crystal properties (semitransparency, specular reflecting surfaces) and their effect on the heat transfer is stresses. Treatment of the unknown phase boundary fluid/crystal as well as problems related to the assessment of the quality of the grown crystals (composition, thermal stresses, point defects, disclocations etc.) and their coupling to the heat transfer/fluid flow problems is considered. Differences between the crystal growth simulation codes intended for the research and for the industrial applications are indicated. The problems of the code verification and validation are discussed; a brief review of the experimental techniques for the study of heat transfer and flow structure in crystal growth is presented. The state of the art of the optimization of the growth facilities and technological processes is discussed. An example of the computations of the heat transfer and crystal growth of bulk SiC crystals by the sublimation method is presented.

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