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DOI: 10.1615/ICHMT.1995.RadTransfProcHeatMassTransfSevNuclReactAcc.150

Richard R. Hobbins
RRH Consulting

Daniel J. Osetek
Los Alamos Technical Associates


The impetus to understand the release and transport of low volatility fission products under severe accident conditions is the potentially significant contribution of these radionuclides to the dose consequences calculated from severe reactor accidents. The relative dose contribution of these radionuclides to the total effective dose equivalent for a severe accident is documented. Experimental data and theoretical and empirical models on the release and transport of low volatility fission products are reviewed, and directions of new work to enhance understanding in this area of severe accident technology are identified. Current information indicates that ceramic crusts readily form around molten fuel and limit the releases of I6w volatility fission products. Additionally, temperature gradients in the release pathway cause strong deposition of the those low volatility fission products that are released from the fuel. Further research is suggested to evaluate these phenomena and quantify their effects on low volatility fission product release. The research should include in-pile and out-of-pile experiments using prototypic conditions to permit the formation of crusts around accumulations of molten fuel and provision to measure fission product release, timing of release, and deposition at high temperatures.

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