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International Journal on Algae
SJR: 0.219 SNIP: 0.261 CiteScore™: 0.24

ISSN Imprimir: 1521-9429
ISSN On-line: 1940-4328

International Journal on Algae

DOI: 10.1615/InterJAlgae.v14.i2.50
pages 163-181

Phycochemistry and Bioactivity of Twelve Freshwater Algae of Pakistan

M. N. Khalid
Department of Botany, G.C. University Faisalabad, Pakistan
M. Shameel
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan


Twelve commonly occurring species of freshwater benthic algae, i.e., Chara zeylanica Klein ex Willd., Cladophora glom erata (L.) Kutz., C. ok amurai (Ueda) van den Hoek, Gloeotrichia raciborskii Wolosz., Lyngbya m ajuscula (Dillwyn) Harv., L. m artensiana Menegh., Microcystis aeruginosa (Kutz.) Kutz., Microspora floccosa (Vaucher) Thur., Nitella hyalina (De Candolle) C.A. Agardh, Oscillatoria princeps Vaucher, Spirogyra hyalina Cleve,, and S. rhizoides Randhawa have been collected from different areas in Sindh Province of Pakistan. These algae, which belong to three phyla Cyanophycota, C hlorophycota and Charophycota, have been investigated phycochemically as well as from the viewpoint of bioactivity, and the results obtained were compared with those of their counterparts found in the estuarine and marine environments. A variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were detected in the methanol extracts of the investigated algal species and analyzed as methyl esters qualitatively as well as quantitatively through GLC and GC-MS techniques. Also, several hydrocarbons, sterols, terpenes, carbohydrates, and glycosides have also been isolated from them and purified. Their structures were chemically elucidated through standard chemical methods, e.g., IR and UV, EI-, FAB-, FD-, GC- and HR-MS, and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The crude extracts of the investigated species have also been tested for their biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities.