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International Journal on Algae
SJR: 0.216 SNIP: 0.322 CiteScore™: 0.4

ISSN Imprimir: 1521-9429
ISSN On-line: 1940-4328

International Journal on Algae

DOI: 10.1615/InterJAlgae.v14.i3.60
pages 279-286

The Algobacterial Mat and Its Role in Silica Deposits (Case Study of the Caldera of Volcano Uzon, Kamchatka)

E. A. Zhegallo
Interinstitute Laboratory of the Paleontology Institute of RAS, 123, Profsoyuznaya St., 117997 Moscow, Russia
E. I. Tembrel
Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, 9, Piip Boulevard, 683006 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia
G. A. Karpov
Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far East Branch of RAS, 9, Piypa Boul., 683006 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Russia
L. M. Gerasimenko
S.N. Vinogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
V. K. Orleansky
Interinstitute Laboratory of the Paleontology Institute of RAS, 123, Profsoyuznaya St., 117997; S.N. Vinogradskiy Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7, 60 Let Oktiabria Square, Mosсow

RESUMO

The mechanism of formation of specific biosiliceous lamellar deposits characteristic only for a single hot springs was investigated in the Thermofilny spring in Volcano Uzon's caldera. It is shown that the formation of such deposits is a result of the influence of three factors: the high content of silicon in water (up to 400 mg/L); the growing algobacterial mat in the spring flow, and an accumulation of gas bubbles underneath the algobacterial mats in the bed of flow. Gas bubbles from the punctures the mat layers, forming protrusions over the flow of the stream, desiccating over time. In such conditions, mat layers function as a pump, contributing to the evaporation of source water (the principle of the wick). As a result of this process, a local accumulation of flint in the raised section of the mat layers takes place (due to evaporation of water and biota fossilization), followed by a lowering of the silicified layer or its fragments to the spring bottom. The process can be repeated several times. The observed thickness of the sedimentary bio-mineral structures reached about 30 cm in the range of the hot spring. Authors propose the name "biosilicite" for a rock filled with biota.


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