Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
International Journal on Algae
SJR: 0.216 SNIP: 0.322 CiteScore™: 0.4

ISSN Imprimir: 1521-9429
ISSN On-line: 1940-4328

International Journal on Algae

DOI: 10.1615/InterJAlgae.v22.i1.70
pages 77-88

Application of Immobilized Microalgae for Native Wastewater Treatment

M. Ameri
Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Biological Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
R. A. Khavari-Nejad
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Biological Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
N. Soltani
Department of Petroleum Microbiology, Research Institute of Applied Science, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; Research Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, DOE, Tehran, Iran
F. Najafi
Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Khwarizmi University, Tehran, Iran
A. Bagheri
Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Using bio-absorbents for treating industrial and domestic wastewater research have been recently increased. The dual application of microalgae for wastewater treatment and biomass production is a feasible way to reduce environmental problem. In this regard, the use of local microalgae in free and immobilized forms in native and diluted industrial wastewater was investigated. Immobilization was studied in alginate matrix, together with barium or calcium chloride cross link agents with other polymers and salts (chitosan, methyl cellulose, PVP, and CaCO3). Algae in both forms showed capability of absorption of nutrients and metal ions according to ICP and COD measurement. The results showed that using the immobilized form is superior due to the ease of harvest and possibility of alginate in metal ions' chelation in a short time in comparison with free form.


  1. Abdel-Raouf N., Al-Homaidan A., Ibraheem I. 2012. Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 19(3): 257-275.

  2. Al-Rub F.A., El-Naas M., Benyahia F., Ashour I. 2004. Biosorption of nickel on blank alginate beads, free and immobilized algal cells. Proc. Biochem. 39(11): 1767-1773.

  3. Cai T., Park S.Y., and Li.Y., Nutrient recovery from wastewater streams by microalgae: status and prospects. Renew. and Sust. Energy Rev. 19: 360-369, 2013.

  4. Chen J.P., Hong L., Wu S., and Wang L., Elucidation of interactions between metal ions and Ca alginate-based ion-exchange resin by spectroscopic analysis and modeling simulation. Langmuir. 18(24): 9413-9421, 2002.

  5. da Costa A.C.A. and Leite S.G.F., Metals biosorption by sodium alginate immobilized Chlorella homosphaera cells. Biotech. Lett. 13(8): 559-562, 1991.

  6. De-Bashan L.E. and Bashan Y., Immobilized microalgae for removing pollutants: review of practical aspects. Biores. Techn. 101(6): 1611-1627, 2010.

  7. Dwivedi S. 2012., Bioremediation of heavy metal by algae: current and future perspective. J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol. 3(3): 195-199.

  8. Gaserad O., Sannes A., and Skjak-Brffik G., Microcapsules of alginate-chitosan. II. A study of capsule stability and permeability. Biomaterials. 20(8): 773-783, 1999.

  9. Han X., Wong Y.S., Wong M.H., and Tam N.F.Y., Biosorption and bioreduction of Cr(VI) by a microalgal isolate, Chlorella miniata. J. Hazard. Mat. 146(1-2): 65-72, 2007.

  10. Haug A., Affinity of some divalent metals to different types of alginates. Acta Chem. Scand. 15: 1794-1795, 1961.

  11. Ibanez J.P. and Umetsu Y., Potential of protonated alginate beads for heavy metals uptake. Hydrometallurgy. 64(2): 89-99, 2002.

  12. Kim S.K., Handbook of marine macroalgae: biotechnology and applied phycology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Pp. 424-430, 2011.

  13. Mahmoud M. and Mohamed S.A., Calcium alginate as an eco-friendly supporting material for Baker's yeast strain in chromium bioremediation. HBRC J. 13(3): 245-254, 2017.

  14. Mehta S., Gaur J. 2005. Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: progress and prospects. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 25(3): 113-152.

  15. Mehta S.K. and Gaur J.P., Removal of Ni and Cu from single and binary metalsolutions by free and immobilized Chlorella vulgaris. Europ. J. Protistol. 37(3): 261-271, 2001.

  16. Owlad M., Aroua M.K., Daud W.A.W. and Baroutian S., Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and wastewater: a review. Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 200(1-4): 59-77, 2009.

  17. Pandey A., Bera D., Shukla A., and Ray L., Studies on Cr(VI), Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption-desorption using calcium alginate as biopolymer. Chem. Spec. & Bioavailab. 19(1): 17-24, 2007.

  18. Papageorgiou S.K., Katsaros F.K., Kouvelos E.P., Nolan J.W., Le Deit H., and Kanellopoulos N.K., Heavy metal sorption by calcium alginate beads from Laminaria digitata. J. Hazard. Mat. 137(3): 1765-1772, 2006.

  19. Patricia Blanes C.C., Cortadi A., Frascaroli M., Gattuso M., Garcia S., Gonzalez J., Harada M., Matulewicz C., Niwa Y., Prado H., and Sala L., Biosorption of trivalent chromium from aqueous solution by red seaweed Polysiphonia nigrescens. J. Water Res. and Protect. 3(11): 12, 2011.

  20. Pena-Castro J., Martinez-Jeronimo F., Esparza-Garcia F., and Canizares-Villanueva R., Heavy metals removal by the microalga Scenedesmus incrassatulus in continuous cultures. Biores. Technol. 94(2): 219-222, 2004.

  21. Petrovic A. and Simonic M., Removal of heavy metal ions from drinking water by alginate-immobilised Chlorella sorokiniana. Int. J. Environ. Sci. and Technol. 13(7): 1761-1780, 2016.

  22. Rangsayatorn N., Pokethitiyook P., Upatham E., and Lanza G., Cadmium biosorption by cells of Spirulina platensis TISTR 8217 immobilized in alginate and silica gel. Environ. Int. 30(1): 57-63, 2004.

  23. Sivakumar D., Hexavalent chromium removal in a tannery industry wastewater using rice husk silica. Global J. Environ. Sci. andManag. 1(1): 27-40, 2015.

  24. Yilleng M., Gimba C., Ndukwe I., and Nwankwere E., Adsorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by granulated activated carbon from Canarium schweinfurthii seed shell. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 4(3): 89-94, 2013.

Articles with similar content: