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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University (NCHU), Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.; NCHU-UCD Plant and Food Biotechnology Center, NCHU, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.; Agricultural Biotechnology Center, NCHU, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
The Experimental Forest Management Office, NCHU, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C
Darya O. Mishchuk
Department of Food Science and Technology, UCD, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A.
Carolyn M. Slupsky
Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis (UCD), Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A.; Department of Food Science and Technology, UCD, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A.
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145 Hsing-Da Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848–94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.
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