Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
Atomization and Sprays
Fator do impacto: 1.737 FI de cinco anos: 1.518 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 2.2

ISSN Imprimir: 1044-5110
ISSN On-line: 1936-2684

Volume 30, 2020 Volume 29, 2019 Volume 28, 2018 Volume 27, 2017 Volume 26, 2016 Volume 25, 2015 Volume 24, 2014 Volume 23, 2013 Volume 22, 2012 Volume 21, 2011 Volume 20, 2010 Volume 19, 2009 Volume 18, 2008 Volume 17, 2007 Volume 16, 2006 Volume 15, 2005 Volume 14, 2004 Volume 13, 2003 Volume 12, 2002 Volume 11, 2001 Volume 10, 2000 Volume 9, 1999 Volume 8, 1998 Volume 7, 1997 Volume 6, 1996 Volume 5, 1995 Volume 4, 1994 Volume 3, 1993 Volume 2, 1992 Volume 1, 1991

Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2019030944
pages 403-428


Yasir Hayat Nazeer
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe GmbH, Germany
M. Ehmann
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe GmbH, Germany
P. Koukouvinis
School of Mathematics, Computer Science, and Engineering, City University London, Northampton Square, EC1V 0HB London, United Kingdom
Manolis Gavaises
School of Mathematics, Computer Science, and Engineering, City University London, Northampton Square, EC1V 0HB London, United Kingdom


Internally mixing twin-fluid Y-jet atomizers are widely used in coal-fired thermal power plants for start-up, oil-fired thermal power plants, and industrial boilers. The flow through internally mixing Y-jet atomizers is numerically modeled using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations; wall modeled large eddy simulations (WMLES) are used to resolve the turbulence with large eddy simulations whereas the Prandtl mixing length model is used for modeling the subgrid scale structures, which are affected by geometric and operational parameters. Moreover, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method is used to capture the development and fragmentation of the liquid-gas interface within the Y-jet atomizer. The numerical results are compared with correlations available in the open literature for the pressure drop; further results are presented for the multiphase flow regime maps available for vertical pipes. The results show that the mixing point pressure is strongly dependent on the mixing port diameter to air port diameter ratio, specifically for gas to liquid mass flow-rate ratio (GLR) in the range 0.1 < GLR < 0.4; the mixing port length moderately affects the mixing point pressure while the angle between mixing and liquid ports is found not to have an appreciable effect.Moreover, it is found that the vertical pipe multiphase flow regime maps in the literature could be applied to the flow through the mixing port of the twin-fluid Y-jet atomizer. The main flow regimes found under the studied operational conditions are annular and wispy-annular flow.


  1. Andreussi, P., Tognotti, L., Michele, G.D., and Graziadio, M., Design and Characterization of Twin-Fluid Y-Jet Atomizers, Atomization Sprays, vol. 2, pp. 45-59,1992.

  2. Andreussi, P., Graziadio, M., Novelli, G., Pasqualetti, A., and Tognotti, L., Measurement of Film Thickness within a Y-Jet Atomizer, in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Rouen, France, pp. 632-639,1994.

  3. Arcoumanis, C., Gavaises, M., Argueyrolles, B., and Galzin, F., Modeling of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for GDI Engines, SAE Trans, vol. 108-3, pp. 516-532,1999a.

  4. Arcoumanis, C., Gavaises, M., Abdul-Wahab, E., and Moser, V., Modeling of Advanced High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems for Passenger Car Diesel Engines, SAE Trans., vol. 108-3, pp. 1347-1362,1999b.

  5. Barreras, F., Lozano, A., Barroso, J., and Lincheta, E., Experimental Characterization of Industrial Twin-Fluid Atomizers, Atomization Sprays, vol. 16, pp. 145-147,2006a.

  6. Barreras, F., Lozano, A., Ferreira, G., and Lincheta, E., Study of the Internal Flow Condition on the Behavior of Twin-Fluid Nozzle with Internal Mixing Chamber, in Proc. of ICLASS, Kyoto, Japan, 2006b.

  7. Barreras, F., Lozano, A., Ferreira, G., and Lincheta, E., The Effect on the Inner Flow on the Performance of a Twin-Fluid Nozzle with an Iternal Mixing Chamber, in Proc. of ILASS-Europe Conf, Como, Italy, 2008.

  8. Brackbill, J.U., Kothe, D.B., andZemach, C., A Continum Method for Modeling Surface Tension. J. Comput. Phys, vol. 100, pp. 335-354,1992.

  9. Bryce, W., Cox, N., and Joyce, W., Oil Droplet Production and Size Measurement from a Twin-Fluid Atomizer Using Real Fluids, in Proc. of 3rd Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Sprays, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 259-263,1978.

  10. Chin, J.S. and Lefebvre, A.H., Flow Patterns in Internal-Mixing Twin-Fluid Atomizers, Atomization Sprays, vol. 3, pp. 463-374,1993.

  11. Crowe, C., Multiphase Flow Handbook, New York, NY: Taylor and Francis, 2006.

  12. Dafsari, R.A., Vashali, F., and Lee, J., Effect of Swirl Chamber Length on the Atomization Characteristics of a Pressure Swirl Nozzle, Atomization Sprays, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 859-874,2017.

  13. De Michele, G., Graziadio, M., Morelli, F., and Novelli, G., Characterization of the Spray Structure of a Large Scale H.F.O. Atomizer, in Proc. ICLASS, Gaithersburg, MD, vol. 99, pp. 779-786,1991.

  14. Dombrowski, N., Hanson, D., and Ward, D., Some Aspects of Liquid Flow through Fan Spray Nozzles, Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 33-50,1960.

  15. Dombrowski, N. and Johns, W., The Aerodynamic Instability and Disintegration of Viscous Liquid Sheets, Chem. Eng. Sci, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 203-214,1963.

  16. El-Batsh, H.M., Doheim, M.A., and Hassan, A.F., On the Application of Mixture Model for Two-Phase Flow Induced Corrosion in a Complex Pipeline Configuration, Appl. Math. Modell, vol. 36, pp. 5686.

  17. Esfarjani, S.A. and Dolatabadi, A., 3D Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in an Effervescent Atomizer for Suspension Plasma Spray, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 203, pp. 2074-2280,2009.

  18. Ferreira, G., Barreras, F., Lozano, A., Garcia, J.A., and Lincheta, E., Effect of Inner Two-Phase Flow on the Performance of an Industrial Twin-Fluid Nozzle with an Internal Mixing Chamber, Atomization Sprays, vol. 19, pp. 873-884,2009a.

  19. Ferreria, G., Garcia, J.A., Barreras, F., Lozano, A., and Lincheta, E., Design and Optimization of Twin- Fluid Atomizers with an Internal Mixing Chamber for Heavy Fuel Oils, Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 90, pp. 270-278, 2009b.

  20. Gadgil, H.P. and Raghunandan, B.N., Some Features of Spray Breakup in Effervescent Atomizers, Exp. Fluids, vol. 50, pp. 329-338,2011.

  21. Gopala, V.R. and Berend, G.M., Volume of Fluids Methods for Immiscible-Fluids and Free-Surface Flows, Chem. Eng. J, vol. 141, pp. 204-221,2008.

  22. Hawkes, N., Lawrence, C., and Hewitt, G., Studies of Wispy-Annular Flow Using Transient Pressure Gradient and Optical Measurement, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 26, pp. 1565-1582,2000.

  23. Hewitt, G.F. and Roberts, D.N., Studies of Two-Phase Flow Patterns by Simultaneous X-Ray and Flash Photography, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, UK, Tech. Rep. AERE-M2159, Febu- rary, 1969.

  24. Hinze, J.O., Turbulence, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.

  25. Huang, X., Wang, X., and Liao, G., Characterization of an Effervescent Atomization Water Mist Nozzle and Its Fire Suppression Tests, Proc. Combust. Inst., vol. 33, pp. 2573-2579,2011.

  26. Jang, X., Siamas, G.A., Jagus, K., and Karayiannis, T., Physical Modelling and Advanced Simulations of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Jet Flows in Atomization and Sprays, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 36, pp. 131-167,2010.

  27. Kieffer, S.W., Sound Speed in Liquid-Gas Mixtures: Water-Air and Water-Steam, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 82, pp. 2895-2904,1977.

  28. Koukouvinis, P., Gavaises, M., Li, J., and Wang, L., Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Injector Including Cavitation Effects and Correlation to Erosion Damage, Fuel, vol. 175, pp. 26-39,2016a.

  29. Koukouvinis, P., Naseri, H., and Gavaises, M., Performance of Turbulence Models and Effect of Cavitation Models in Prediction of Incipient Cavitation, Int. J. Engine Res, vol. 18, pp. 333-350,2016b.

  30. Lakhehal, D., Meier, M., and Fulgosi, M., Interface Tracking towards the Direct Simulation of Heat and Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 23, pp. 242-257,2002.

  31. Lang, R., Ultrasonic Atomization of Liquids, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 6-8,1962.

  32. Lefebvre, A.H., A Novel Method of Atomization with Potential Gas Turbine Application, Def. Sci. J, vol. 38, pp. 353-362,1988.

  33. Lefebvre, A.H., Twin-Fluid Atomization: Factors Influencing Mean Drop Size, Atomization Sprays, vol. 2, pp. 101-119,1992.

  34. Li, Z., Wua, Y., Cai, C., Zhang, H., Gong, Y., Takeno, K., Hashiguchi, K., and Lu, J., Mixing and Atomization Characteristics in an Internal-Mixing Twin-Fluid Atomizer, Fuel, vol. 97, pp. 306-314,2012.

  35. Li, S., Yang, X.Y, Fu, C., Li, T.Y., and Gao, Y., Experimental Investigation of Near-Field Breakup Characteristics of Hybrid-Mix Twin-Fluid Atomizers, Atomization Sprays, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 901-914,2018.

  36. Loebker, D. and Empie, H.J., High Mass Flow Rate Effervescent Spraying of High Viscosity Newtonian Liquid, in Proc. of 10th Annual Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 253-257,1997.

  37. Loth, E., Computational Fluid Dynamics of Bubbles, Drops and Particles, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

  38. Maski, D. and Durairaj, D., Effects of Electrode Voltage, Liquid Flow Rate, and Liquid Properties on Spray Chargeability of an Air-Assisted Electrostatic-Induction Spray, J. Electrost., vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 152-158, 2010.

  39. McWilliam, D. andDuggins,R., Speed of Sound in Bubbly Liquids, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 102-107,1969.

  40. Mitroglou, N. and Gavaises, M., Cavitation inside Real-Size Fully Transparent Fuel Injector Nozzles and Its Effect on Near-Nozzle Spray Formation, in Proc. ofWorkshop on Droplet Impact Phenomena and Spray Investigations (DIPSI), University of Bergamo, Italy, 2011.

  41. Mlkvik, M., Stahle, P., Schuchmann, H.P., Gaukel, V., Jedelsky, J., and Jicha, M., Twin-Fluid Atomization of Viscous Liquids: The Effect of Atomizer Construction on Breakup Process, Spray Stability and Droplet Size, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 77, pp. 19-31,2015.

  42. Mujumdar, A.S., Huang, L.X., and Chen, X.D., An Overview of the Recent Advances in Spray-Drying, Dairy Sci. Technol., vol. 90, pp. 211-224,2010.

  43. Mullinger, P. and Chigier, N., The Design and Performance of Internal Mixing Multijet Twin Fluid Atomizers, J. Inst. Fuel, vol. 47, pp. 251-261,1974.

  44. Naseri, H., Trickett, K., Mitroglou, N., Karathanassis, I., Koukouvinis, P., Gavaises, M., Barbour, R., Santini, M., and Wang, J., Turbulence and Cavitation Suppression by Quaternary Ammonium Salt Additives, Nat. Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 7636,2018.

  45. Nazeer, Y., Ehmann, M., Koukouvinis, F., and Gavaises, M., Internal Flow Characteristics of Twin-Fluid 'Y' Type Internally Mixing Atomizer, in Proc. ofICLASS, Chicago, IL, 2018.

  46. Nguyen, D. and Rhodes, M.J., Producing Fine Drops of Water by Twin-Fluid Atomization, Powder Technol., vol. 99, pp. 285-292,1998.

  47. Oshinowo, T. and Charles, M.E., Vertical Two-Phase Flow; Part 1, Flow Pattern Correlations, J. Chem. Eng., vol. 52, pp. 25-35,1974.

  48. Pacifico, A.L. and Yanagihara, J.I., The Influence of Geometrical and Operational Parameters on Y-Jet Atomizers Performance, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., vol. 36, pp. 13-32,2014.

  49. Piomelli, U. and Balaras, E., Wall-Layer Models for Large-Eddy Simulations, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 34, pp. 349-374, 2002.

  50. Prasad, K.S.L., Characterization of Air Blast Atomizers, in Proc. of ICLASS, Madison, WI, 1982.

  51. Radcliffe, A., The Performance of a Type of Swirl Atomizer, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., vol. 169, pp. 93-106, 1955.

  52. Saleh, A., Amini, G., and Dolatabadi, A., Penetration of Aerated Suspension on Spray in a Gaseous Cross-flow, Atomization Sprays, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 91-110,2018.

  53. Shur, M., Strelets, P., Spalart, M., and Travin, A., Detached-Eddy Simulation of an Airfoil at High Angle of Attack, Eng. Turbul. Modell. Meas, vol. 4, pp. 669-678,1999.

  54. Shur, M.L., Spalart, P.R., Strelets, M.K., and Travin, A.K., A Hybrid RANS-LES Approach with Delayed-DES and Wall-Modelled LES Capabilities, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 29, pp. 1638-1649,2008.

  55. Smagorinsky, J., General Circulation Experiments with the Primitive Equations, Mon. Weather Rev, vol. 91, pp. 99-164,1963.

  56. Song, S. and Lee, S., An Examination of Spraying Performance of Y-Jet Atomizers-Effect of Mixing Port Length, in Proc. of ICLASS, Rouen, France, 1994.

  57. Song, S.H. and Lee, S.Y., Study of Atomization Mechanism of Gas/Liquid Mixtures Flowing through Y-Jet Atomizers, Atomization Sprays, vol. 6, pp. 193-209,1996.

  58. Sovani, S., Sojka, P., and Lefebvre, A., Effervescent Atomization, Prog;. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 483-521,2001.

  59. Spalart, P., Jou, W., Strelets, M., and Allmaras, S., Comments on the Feasibility of LES for Wings, and on a Hybrid RANS/LES Approach, in Proc. oflstAFOSRInt. Conf. on DNS/LES, Ruston, LA, 1997.

  60. Spalart, P.R., Deck, S., Shur, M.L., Squires, K.D., Strelets, M.Kh., and Travin, A., A New Version of Detached-Eddy Simulation, Resistant to Ambiguous Grid Densities, Theor. Comput. FluidDyn, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 181-195,2006.

  61. Tanasawa, Y., Miyasaka, Y., and Umehara, M., Effect of Shape of Rotating Disks and Cups on Liquid Atomization, in Proc. of ICLASS, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 165-172,1978.

  62. Tanner, F.X., Feigl, K., Karrio, O., and Windhab, E.J., Modeling and Simulation of Air-Assist Atomizers with Applications to Food Spray, Appl. Math. Models, vol. 40, pp. 6121-6133,2016.

  63. Tapia, Z. and Chavez, A., Internal Flow in Y-Jet Atomizer-Numerical Study, in Proc. of ILASS-Europe, Zaragoza, Spain, 2002.

  64. Van Driest, E.R., On Turbulent Flow near a Wall, J. Aeronaut. Sci., vol. 23, pp. 1007-1011,1956.

  65. Wade, R.A., Weerts, J.M., Gore, J.P., and Eckerle, W.A., Effervescent Atomization at Injection Pressures in the MPa Range, Atomization Sprays, vol. 9, pp. 651-667,1999.

  66. Warnatz, J., Mass, U., and Dibble, R.W., Combustion: Physical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, 3rd ed., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

  67. Wen, W. and Piomelli, U., Reynolds-Averaged and Wall-Modelled Large-Eddy Simulations of Impinging Jets with Embedded Azimuthal Vortices, Eur. J. Mech, B: Fluids, vol. 55, pp. 348-359,2016.

  68. Wigg, L., The Effect of Scales on Fine Sprays Produced by Large Airblast Atomiizer, Pyestock, UK: National Gas Turbine Establishment, 1959.

  69. Zhou, Y., Zhang, M., Yu, J., and Zhu, X., Experimental Investigation and Model Improvement on the Atomization Performance of Single Hole Y-Jet Nozzle with High Liquid Flow Rate, Powder Technol, vol. 199, pp. 248-255,2010.

Articles with similar content:

4th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference, Vol.28, 2019, issue
Ekhwaiter Abobaker, Mohammad Azizur Rahman, John Shirokoff
Multiphase Science and Technology, Vol.28, 2016, issue 1
Christos Markides, Geoffrey F. Hewitt, Rhys G. Morgan, Jae S. An, Colin P. Hale, Ivan Zadrazil
Second Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference, Vol.43, 2017, issue
Bo Yu, Dongliang Sun, Yajun Deng, Yongtu Liang
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.23, 2013, issue 9
Daniel Duke, Andrew B. Swantek, Alan L. Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, F. Zak Tilocco
Heat Pipe Science and Technology, An International Journal, Vol.1, 2010, issue 3
Fernando Milanez, Marcia Barbosa Henriques Mantelli