Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering
Fator do impacto: 1.016 FI de cinco anos: 1.194 SJR: 0.554 SNIP: 0.82 CiteScore™: 2

ISSN Imprimir: 1543-1649
ISSN On-line: 1940-4352

International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMultCompEng.2011002379
pages 117-130


Mark A. King
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, United Kingdom
M. G. C. Lewis
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, United Kingdom
M. R. Yeadon
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, United Kingdom


The purpose of this study was to consider whether it is necessary for biarticular effects to be accounted for in subject-specific representations of maximal voluntary knee extension and knee flexion torques. Isovelocity and isometric knee torques were measured on a single participant at three different hip angles using a Contrex MJ dynamometer. Maximal voluntary torque was represented by a 19-parameter two-joint function of knee and hip joint angles and angular velocities with the parameters determined by minimizing a weighted rms difference between measured torques and the two-joint function. The weighted rms difference between the two-joint function and the measured knee flexion torques was 14 Nm or 9% of maximum torque, while for knee extension the difference was 26 Nm or 9% of maximum torque. The two-joint representation was shown to be more accurate than an existing single-joint representation for torques measured at hip angles other than those used to derive the single-joint function parameter values. The differences between the traditionally used single-joint representation and the measured knee flexion and knee extension torques were largest for the most extended hip joint angle (15 and 18% of maximum torque, respectively), while the corresponding differences for the two-joint function were 9% and 8% of maximum torque. It is concluded that a two-joint function can account for changes in knee flexion and knee extension joint torques due to both monoarticular and biarticular muscles over a range of both hip and knee angles, and this has the potential to improve the biofidelity of whole-body subject-specific torque-driven simulation models.


  1. Allard, P., Stokes, I. A. F., and Blanchi, J., Three-Dimensional Analysis of Human Movement.

  2. Amiridis, I. G., Martin, A., Morlon, B., Martin, L., Cometti, G., Pousson, M., and van Hoecke, J., Co-activation and tension-regulating phenomena during isokinetic knee extension in sedentary and highly skilled humans. DOI: 10.1007/BF00262824

  3. Burden, A. and Bartlett, R., Normalisation of EMG amplitude: An evaluation and comparison of old and new methods. DOI: 10.1016/S1350-4533(99)00054-5

  4. Carnahan, B., Luther, H. A., and Wilkes, J. O., Applied Numerical Methods. DOI: 10.1002/nme.1620040415

  5. Corana, A., Marchesi, M., Martini, C., and Ridella, S., Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous variables with the “simulated annealing” algorithm. DOI: 10.1145/29380.29864

  6. Cresswell, A. G., Loscher, W. N., and Thorstensson, A., Influence of gastrocnemius muscle length on triceps surae torque development and electro myographic activity in man. DOI: 10.1007/BF00240964

  7. Davis, R. B., Ounpuu, S., and Tyburski, D., A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique. DOI: 10.1016/0167-9457(91)90046-Z

  8. Duda, G. N., Brand, D., Freitag, S., Lierse, W., and Schneider, E., Variability of femoral muscle attachments. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(96)00025-5

  9. Fugl-Meyer, A. R., Gustafsson, L., and Burstedt, Y., Isokinetic and static plantar flexion characteristics. DOI: 10.1007/BF00421330

  10. Grieve, D. W., Pheasant, S., and Cavanagh, P. R., Prediction of Gastrocnemius Length from Knee and Ankle Joint Posture.

  11. Hill, A. V., The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1938.0050

  12. Iossifidou, A. N. and Baltzopoulos, V., Inertial effects on the assessment of performance in isokinetic dynamometry. DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-971961

  13. Iossifidou, A. N., Baltzopoulos, V., and Giakas, G., Isokinetic knee extension and vertical jumping: Are they related?. DOI: 10.1080/02640410500128189

  14. Jacobs, R., Bobbert, M. F., and van Ingen Schenau, G. J., Mechanical output from individual muscles during explosive leg extensions: The role of biarticular muscles. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00067-4

  15. Keenan, K. G., Farina, D., Maluf, K. S., Merletti, R., and Enoka, R. M., Influence of amplitude cancellation on the simulated surface electromyogram. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00894.2004

  16. King, M. A. and Yeadon, M. R., Maximising somersault rotation in tumbling. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2003.09.008

  17. King, M. A., Kong, P. W., and Yeadon, M. R., Evaluation of a Torque Driven Computer Simulation Model of Springboard Diving.

  18. King, M. A., Wilson, C., and Yeadon, M. R., Evaluation of a torque-driven model of jumping for height.

  19. Klein, P., Mattys, S., and Rooze, M., Moment arm length variations of selected muscles acting on talocrural and subtalar joints during movement: An in vitro study. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00025-9

  20. Out, L., Vrijkotte, T. G. M., van Soest, A. J., and Bobbert, M. F., Influence of the parameters of a human triceps surae muscle model on the isometric torque-angle relationship. DOI: 10.1115/1.2795940

  21. Pavol, M. J. and Grabiner, M. D., Knee strength variability between individuals across ranges of motion and hip angles.

  22. Sale, D., Quinlan, J., Marsh, E., McComas, A. J., and Belanger, A. Y., Influence of joint position on ankle plantarflexion in humans.

  23. Savelberg, H. H. C. M. and Meijer, K., The effect of age and joint angle on the proportionality of extensor and flexor strength at the knee joint. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/59.11.1120

  24. Schwartz, F. P., Bottaro, M., Celes, R. S., Brown, L. E., and Nascimento, F. A. O., The influence of velocity over shoot movement artifact on isokinetic knee extension tests.

  25. Scovil, C. Y. and Ronsky, J. L., Sensitivity of a hill-based muscle model to perturbations in model parameters. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.06.005

  26. Spoor, C. W., van Leewun, J. L., Meskers, C. G., Titulaer, A. F., and Huson, A., Estimation of instantaneous moment arms of the lower-leg muscles. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90382-D

  27. Umberger, B. R., Gerritsen, K. G. M., and Martin, P. E., Muscle fibre type effects on energetically optimal cadences in cycling.

  28. Visser, J. J., Hoogkamer, J. E., Bobbert, M. F., and Huijing, P. A., Length and moment arm of human leg muscles as a function of knee and hip-joint angles. DOI: 10.1007/BF00236067

  29. Winter, D. A., Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. DOI: 10.1002/9780470549148

  30. Yeadon, M. R., The simulation of aerial movement—I. The determination of orientation angles from film data. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90369-E

  31. Yeadon, M. R., Kong, P. W., and King, M. A., Parameter determination for a computer simulation model of a diver and a spring-board.

Articles with similar content:

Evidence That In Vivo Wear Damage Alters Kinematics and Contact Stresses in a Total Knee Replacement
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.20, 2010, issue 1
David W. Holdsworth, John L. Williams, Matthew G Teeter, David A. Knox, William M. Mihalko
Clinical Application of Artificial Ligament for Ankle Instability—Long-Term Follow-Up
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.10, 2000, issue 4
Eiichi Hiraishi, Akeo Waseda, Norio Usami, Suguru Inokuchi, Masaki Miyanaga
Fixed Versos Mobile Bearing Knee Arthroplasty: A Review of Kinematics and Results
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.21, 2011, issue 3
A. P. Apostolopoulos, E. Chronopoulos, G. Papachristou, loannis V. Michos, Stergios N. Lallos, Nikolaos E. Efstathopoulos, Andreas F. Mavrogenis
International Journal for Uncertainty Quantification, Vol.4, 2014, issue 3
Hester Bijl, Richard P. Dwight, Jouke H.S. de Baar
The Effect of Mandibular Flexure on Stress Distribution in the All-on-4 Treated Edentulous Mandible: A Comparative Finite-Element Study Based on Mechanostat Theory
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.29, 2019, issue 1
Shayan Shahriari, Mahsa Aeinevand, Arash Khojasteh, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani, Mohammad Nikkhoo, Azim Parandakh, Paniz Naraghi, Nima Azadikhah