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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Fator do impacto: 2.9 FI de cinco anos: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Imprimir: 0743-4863
ISSN On-line: 2162-660X

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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v25.i4.30
pages 381-401

Transdermal Iontophoresis: Impact on Skin Integrity as Evaluated by Various Methods

Maansi G. Kumar
College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, St. John's University, Jamaica, NY 11439
Senshang Lin
College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, St. John's University, Jamaica, NY 11439

RESUMO

Transdermal iontophoresis, a noninvasive technique that facilitates drug transport through the skin by the use of an external electrical field, has expanded the scope of drugs that can be delivered transdermally and enables programmable drug delivery. In general, transdermal iontophoresis is considered to be a safe procedure, associated with moderate erythema and tingling sensations. However, ensuring that the skin barrier maintains its integrity during iontophoresis is an essential factor to increase its clinical applicability. This review focuses on the effect of transdermal iontophoresis on the integrity of skin, as evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transepidermal water loss, laser doppler velocimetry, visual scoring, chromameter readings, and patient evaluation studies.


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