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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
SJR: 0.145 SNIP: 0.491 CiteScore™: 0.89

ISSN Imprimir: 1050-6934
ISSN On-line: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.v14.i4.40
24 pages

Photoprotection by Sunscreens with Topical Antioxidants and Systemic Antioxidants to Reduce Sun Exposure

Richard Edlich
Legacy Verified Level I Shock Trauma Center Pediatrics and Adults, Legacy Emanual Hospital; and Plastic Surgery, Biomedical Engineering and Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, USA
Kathryne L. Winters
Website Manager and Information Specialist, Trauma Specialists, LLP, Legacy Emanuel Hospital, Portland, Oregon, 1917 NE 97th St. Vancouver WA 98665, USA
Henry W. Lim
Chairman and C. S. Livingood Chair Department of Dermatology Vice President for Academic Affairs Henry Ford Health System 2799 W. Grand Blvd. Detroit MI 48202
Mary Jude Cox
Glaucoma Service, Eye Physicians of Southern New Jersey, Voorhees, New Jersey; and Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
Daniel G. Becker
Associate Professor, Director of Facial Plastic Surgery Dept of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center Founder, Becker Nose and Sinus Center, LLC Sewell, New Jersey, USA
Jed H. Horowitz
Pacific Center for Plastic Surgery & Plastikos Foundation, Huntington Beach, California, USA
Larry S. Nichter
Pacific Center for Plastic Surgery, Huntington Beach, CA, USA
L. D. Britt
Chairman, Brickhouse Professor of Surgery. Department of General Surgery, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Hofheimer Hall, 825 Fairfax Avenue, Norfolk VA 235001, USA
William B. Long III
Trauma Specialists LLP, Legacy Verified Level I Shock Trauma Center for Pediatrics and Adults, Legacy Emmanuel Hospital Portland, OR, USA


Skin cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in the United States, and its incidence continues to rise. Epidemiological studies have documented that excessive sun exposure increases the risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer. Consequently, it is mandatory that the skin be protected from the damage that occurs from ultraviolet (UV) exposure. It is the purpose of this report to review the scientific basis for photoprotection by sunscreens, topical antioxidants, and systemic antioxidants to minimize the harmful effect of sun exposure. The US Food and Drug Administration regulates sunscreen products as over-the-counter drugs. Sunscreens are chemical or organic UV absorbers and nonchemical or inorganic UV absorbers. Other important sunscreen considerations include the sunscreen vehicle, sunscreen photostability, sunscreen preservatives, and sunscreen photoallergy and phototoxicity. Topical and systemic antioxidants have now been shown to supplement the photoprotective effects of sunscreen. The Skin Cancer Foundation, the only national and international nonprofit organization concerned exclusively with cancer of the skin, is playing a leadership role in eliminating skin cancer in our world.

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