Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.28 SNIP: 0.421 CiteScore™: 0.9

ISSN Imprimir: 2150-766X
ISSN On-line: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.2020033404
pages 293-306

INCORPORATING ENERGETIC CHAIN EXTENDERS TO POLYMERIC BINDERS FOR SOLID PROPELLANTS

Craig Whitaker
U.S. Naval Academy, Dept. of Chemistry, Annapolis, Maryland 21402, USA
Patrick Caton
U.S. Naval Academy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Rickover Hall, 590 Holloway Road, Annapolis, Maryland 21402, USA
Ben Alford
Formerly of U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402, USA; Currently ENS, US Navy
Kendell Graser
Formerly of U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402, USA; Currently ENS, US Navy
Lawson Stancil
Formerly of U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402, USA; Currently ENS, US Navy
Miles Whitlow
Formerly of U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402, USA; Currently ENS, US Navy

RESUMO

Methods were investigated for synthesizing polymeric propellant binders that incorporate rigid and energetic chain extenders using polyurethane linkages. After exploring many methods for synthesizing polyurethanes with hard segment isocyanates, soft segment polyols, and chain extenders, a two-step synthesis process with oven cure at 60-70°C proved to be the most effective. Soft segment oligomers with molecular masses of ~ 1000-1200 were found to produce the optimal reaction conditions. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm characteristic polyurethane bonding. Polyurethane polymers with and without chain extenders were then combined with ammonium perchlorate (20% binder, 80% oxidizer by mass) to form hard strands for testing in a chimney-style strand burner. Strands were tested for burning rate at a range of pressures from 0.5-4.6 MPa, and pressure/burn rate data were fit to a line in log-log space using a multiple regression least squares approach. All tested combinations showed similar burning rates between 0.3 and 1.0 cm/s, increasing with pressure. Typical confidence intervals showed that there was a statistically significant increase in burning rate for a 4,4'-biphenol chain extender, while the most commonly utilized 1,4-butanediol showed the consistently lowest burning rates of any tested additive. These results describe effective methods of introducing chain extenders and further suggest that proper choice of chain extender in a polymeric binder could have an important impact on overall propellant performance.

Referências

  1. Borman, S., (1994) Advanced Energetic Material for Military and Space Applications, Chem. Eng. News, pp. 18-21.

  2. Carro, R.V., (2007) High Pressure Testing of Composite Solid Rocket Propellant Mixtures: Burner Facility Characterization, MS, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL.

  3. Chang, S.J., Tang, J., Liu, X., and Yan, W., (2016) Study on Catalysis Effect on TEPB on the Curing Reaction of HTPB Binder System, in 2016 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM2016), IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 137(012057), pp. 1-6.

  4. Chattopadhyay, D.K., Sreedhar, B., and Raju, K.V.S.N., (2005) Effect of Chain Extender on Phase Mixing and Coating Properties of Polyurethane Ureas, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44, pp. 1772-1779.

  5. Chen, K.Y and Kuo, J.F., (2000) Synthesis and Properties of Novel Fluorinated Aliphatic Polyurethanes with Fluoro Chain Extenders, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 201(18), pp. 2676-2686.

  6. Comfort, T., Shanholtz, C., and Fletcher, G., (2004) Progress in HTPE Propellants, in NDIA, 39th Annual Gun Ammunition/Missiles Rocket Conf., Baltimore, MD.

  7. Connell, T.L., Risha, G.A., and Yetter, R.A., (2015) Boron and Polytetrafluoroethylene and a Fuel Composition for Hybrid Rocket Applications, J. Propuls. Power, 31(1), pp. 373-385.

  8. Crawford Jr., B.L., Huggett, C., Daniels, F., and Wilfong, R.E., (1947) Direct Determination of Burning Rate of Propellant Powders, Anal. Chem., 19(9), pp. 630-633.

  9. Filippi, S., Mori, L., Cappello, M., and Polacco, G., (2017) Glycidyl Azide-Butadiene Block Copolymers: Synthesis from the Homopolymers and a Chain Extender, Propel., Explos. Pyrotech., 42, pp. 826-835.

  10. Grollman, B.B. andNewson, C.W., (1977) Burning Rates of Standard Army Propellants in Strand Burner and Closed Chamber Tests, U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, Memorandum Rep. 2775.

  11. Gupta, G., Jawale, L., Mehilal, S., and Bhattacharya, B., (2015) Various Methods for Determination of the Burning Rates of Solid Propellants-An Overview, Central European J. Energetic Mater., 12(3), pp. 593-620.

  12. Hartman, K.O., (2000) Insensitive Munitions Technology for Small Rocket Motors, in Small Rocket Motors and Gas Generator for Land, Sea and Air Launched Weapons, RTO Meeting Proceedings, Neully sur Sein, France, 23, pp. 1-12.

  13. Houton, K.A., Burslem, G.M., and Wilson, A.J., (2015) Development of Solvent Free Synthesis of Hydrogen Bonded Supramolecular Polyurethanes, Chem. Sci., 6, pp. 2382-2388.

  14. Ikhwan, F.H., Ilmiati, S., Kurnia Adi, H., Arumsari, R., and Chalid, M., (2017) Novel Route of Synthesis for Cellulose Fiber-Based Hybrid Polyurethane, in Innovation in Polymer Science and Technology 2016 (IPST2016), IOP Conf. Series; Materials Science and Engineering, 223(012019), pp. 1-11.

  15. Johnson, E.C., Sabatini, J.J., Chavez, D.E., Rausa, R.C., Byrd, E.F.C., Wingard, L.A., and Guzman, P.E., (2018) Bis(1,2,4-Oxadiazole)Bis(Methylene) Dinitrate: A High-Energy Melt-Castable Explosive and Energetic Propellant Plasticizing Ingredient, Org. Process. Res. Dev., 22, pp. 736-740.

  16. Klager, K., (1984) Polyurethanes, the Most Versatile Binder for Solid Composite Propellants, 20th AIAA/SAE/ASME JointPropuls. Conf., AIAA paper 84-1239.

  17. Luo, S.G., Tan, H.M., Zhang, J.G., Wu, Y.J., Pei, F.K., and Meng, X.H., (1997) Catalytic Mechanisms of Triphenyl Bismuth, Dibutyltin Dilaurate, and Their Combination in Polyurethane Forming Reactions, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., pp. 1217-1225.

  18. Ma, M. and Kwon, Y., (2018) Reactive Energetic Plasticizers Utilizing Cu-Free Azide-Alkyne 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition for in Situ Preparation of Poly(THF-co-GAP) based Polyurethane Energetic Binders, Polymers, 10(516), pp. 1-15.

  19. Mark, J.E., (1982) Experimental Determination of Crosslink Densities, Rubber Chem. Technol., 55, pp. 762-768.

  20. Min, B.S., (2008) Characterization of the Plasticized GAP/PEG and GAP/PCL Block Co-Polyurethane Binder Matrices and Its Propellants, Propel. Explos. Pyrotech., 35, pp. 131-138.

  21. Musselman, S.G., Santosusso, T.M., Barnes, J.D., and Sperling, L.H., (1999) Domain Structure and Interphase Dimensions in Poly(Urethaneurea) Elastomers Using DSC and SAXS, J. Poly. Sci.: Part B: Polymer Phys, 37(18), pp. 2586-2600.

  22. NIMIC Newsletter, (2003) Solid Rocket Propellant for Improved IM Response-Part 2 IM Propellant Examples, pp. 2-4.

  23. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), (1998) Policy for Introduction, Assessment and Testing for Insensitive Munitions (IM), Rep. NATO-STANAG 4439.

  24. Pandya, M.V., Deshpande, D.D., Hundiwale, D.G., and Kapadi, U.R., (1987) Cast Polyurethanes: Effect of Chain Extenders on Thermal Mechanical and Dynamic Mechanical Properties, J. Macromol. Sci. Part A, 24(5), pp. 527-538.

  25. Rausch Jr., K.W. and Sayigh, A.A.R., (1965) Structure Property Relationship in Polyurethane Elastomers Prepared by One-Step Reaction, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev., 4(2), pp. 92-98.

  26. Reed Jr., R. and Chan, M.L., (1983) Propellant Binders Cure Catalyst, U.S. Patent 4,379,903, filed March 1,1982, and issued April 12, 1983.

  27. Saunders, J.H. and Fritsch, K.C., (1962) Polyurethane, Chemistry and Technology, Interscience Publishers, Part 11, p. 772.

  28. Seymour, R., Estes, G., and Cooper, S., (1970) Infrared Studies of Segmented Polyurethane Elastomers. I. Hydrogen Bonding, Macromolecules, 3(5), p. 579.

  29. Tan, C., Tirri, T., and Wilen, C.-E., (2017) Investigation on the Influence of Chain Extenders on the Performance of One-Component Moisture-Curable Polyurethane Adhesives, Polymers, 9(184), pp. 1-19.

  30. Tenden, S. and Fossumstuen, K., (2002) IM Improvements of Rocket Motor by Composite Motor Case, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Rep. no. RTO-MP-091.

  31. Tsiotas, A.A., (2012) The Role of the Chain Extender on the Phase Behavior and Morphology of High Hard Block Content Thermoplastic Polyurethanes: Thermodynamics-Structure-Properties, PhD, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

  32. Turner, M.J.L., (2009) Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion Principles, Practice and New Developments, 3rd Ed., Berlin: Springer, pp. 109-111.

  33. Wingard, L.A., Guzman, P.E., Johnson, S., Sabatini, J.J., Drake, G.W., and Byrd, E.F.C., (2017) Synthesis of Bis-Isoxazole-Bis-Methylene Dinitrate: A Potential Nitrate Plasticizer and Melt-Castable Eutectic Material, ChemPlusChem, 82, pp. 195-198.

  34. Xue, D., Fan, X., and Zhang, Z., (2016) The Synthesis of Hydroxybutyrate Based Block Polyurethane Form Telechelic Diols with Robust Thermal and Mechanical Properties, J. Chem., pp. 1-10.

  35. Yuan, C., Rong, M.Z., and Zhang, M.Q., (2014) Self-Healing Polyurethane Elastomer with Thermally Reversible Alkoxyamines as Cross-Linkages, Polymer, 55, pp. 1782-1791.


Articles with similar content:

CATALYTIC EFFECTIVITY OF PRINTED MONOLITHIC STRUCTURES WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE – MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.17, 2018, issue 4
Altan Alpay Altun, Manfred Spitzbart, Romain Beauchet, Carsten Scharlemann, Varun Nandyala, Sara Pavesi, Yann Batonneau, Martin Schwentenwein, Corentin Maleix, Robert-Jan Koopmans
SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUIDS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYPERGOLICY WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.19, 2020, issue 1
Felix Lauck, Michele Negri, Stefan Schlechtriem, Dominic Freudenmann
ANALYSIS OF THERMOPLASTIC PROPELLANTS BASED ON A PEBA BINDER SYSTEM
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.9, 2010, issue 5
Ivan Krakovsky, Vladica S. Bozic
SENSITIVITY PROPERTIES AND BURNING RATE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH ENERGY DENSITY MATERIALS AND THE PROPELLANTS CONTAINING THESE MATERIALS
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.5, 2002, issue 1-6
Koh Kobayashi, Kazushige Kato, Shin Matsuura, Shigefumi Miyazaki
SENSITIVITY OF POLYMER-BONDED EXPLOSIVES FROM MOLECULAR MODELING DATA
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.16, 2017, issue 4
Hakima Abou-Rachid, Armand Soldera, David Brochu, Josee Brisson