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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Fator do impacto: 1.625 FI de cinco anos: 1.63 SJR: 0.402 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 2.3

ISSN Imprimir: 0731-8898
ISSN On-line: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v21.i2.130
9 pages

Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Cancer Risks

Edgar M. Moran
Cancer Program, Long Beach VA Medical Center, and University of California, Irvine, Department of Veterans Administration Medical Center

RESUMO

It is well known that about 70% of cancer cases are due to environmental, dietary, or lifestyle factors. Accordingly, these cases may be avoided by appropriate modifications. In addition, active chemoprevention has become a major interventional approach following the epidemiological observation of a beneficial effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in colon cancer prevention. This is chiefly due to the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. The COX enzymatic system includes two isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, that convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. COX-1 is constitutively expressed and synthesizes cytoprotective prostaglandins in the gastrointestinal tract. COX-2 is inducible by the oncogenes ras and scr and other cytokines; it is overexpressed in human cancer cells in which it stimulates cellular division and angiogenesis and inhibits apoptosis. NSAIDs restore apoptosis and decrease tumor mitogenesis and angiogenesis. Most cancer cells have been found to exhibit overexpression of COX-2.


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