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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Fator do impacto: 1.241 FI de cinco anos: 1.349 SJR: 0.356 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Imprimir: 0731-8898
ISSN On-line: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v26.i2.50
pages 105-116

Innovative Drug Delivery Strategies for Topical Photodynamic Therapy using Porphyrin Precursors

Desmond I. J. Morrow
School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
Martin J. Garland
School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
Paul A. McCarron
School of Pharmacy, Queens University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Rd, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
A. David Woolfson
School of Pharmacy, The Queen's University of Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK
Ryan F. Donnelly
School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been extensively investigated as a treatment for tumors and neoplasias of the skin, bladder, mouth, and female reproductive tract. The most convenient drug delivery route, when focusing on the photodynamic treatment of such tumors and neoplasia, is the transdermal. However, with the inherent "barrier function" of the stratum corneum of the skin, drugs with high molecular weight (> 500 Daltons) or extremes of polarity will find it difficult to successfully cross the skin. Therefore, preformed photosensitizers, which are generally large, highly conjugated molecules, are not commonly used in topical PDT. This has led to the idea of endogenous photosensitization using the small (167.8 Daltons), although hydrophilic, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) being the most frequently employed agent in modern topical PDT. Although clinical application of ALA and its bimolecular effects within target cells remain as primary research themes, the design and evaluation of delivery systems required for effective photosensitizer administration have been less well addressed. This paper briefly reviews traditional approaches to topical delivery of ALA and its esters, and highlights several innovative strategies recently employed to increase the efficacy of ALA-PDT.


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