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International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF HYDRODYNAMICS PERFORMANCE OF MANGROVE ROOT MODELS
Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York, USA
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Mangroves play a prominent role in obstructing water currents in riverbanks, shorelines, and coastal areas. Mangrove roots have a significant contribution to the resiliency of the vegetation structure. In this work, the flow characteristics past a cluster of circular cylinders (patch), which represents the mangrove roots, are investigated. Numerical simulations were conducted for five patch porosities (φ = 86% to 96%) for Reynolds number ranging from 2000 to 10,000. The complex two-dimensional flow structure of the cylinder wake is reasonably captured and time-averaged streamwise velocity, vorticity, and turbulence intensity are presented. A comparison is made between flow around one cylinder and a patch of cylinders with the same diameter to determine the impact of the patch porosity. Based on the results, unlike for a canonical cylinder, the patch porosity gives a rise in the Strouhal number but drops drag coefficient. We found that blockage parameter for a patch decreases with porosity for all Reynolds numbers. A von Karman vortex sheet is predicted behind the patch with a periodicity which agrees well with experiment. In addition, the vorticity field for the least porous patch reveals a delay in the formation of von Karman vortex street due to the small vortices in the near wake, whereas the vortices evolve in the far wake and produce swirling flow.
Alongi, D.M., Mangrove Forests: Resilience, Protection from Tsunamis, and Responses to Global Climate Change, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci, vol. 76, pp. 1-13,2008.
Bocanegra Evans, H., Kazemi, A., Lebron Feliciano, J., Carbajal Benitez, G., Curet, O., and Castillo, L., Parametric Study of the Hydrodynamics of a Mangrove Root Model, in 71st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, November 18-20,2018.
Bouma, T.J., vanDuren, L.A., Temmerman, S., Claverie, T., Blanco-Garcia, A., Ysebaert, T., and Herman, P.M.J., Spatial Flow and Sedimentation Patterns within Patches of Epibenthic Structures: Combining Field, Flume and Modelling Experiments, J. Cont. Shelf Res., vol. 27, pp. 1020-1045,2007.
Castillo, E., Vazquez, D.O., Kazemi, A., and Curet, O., Oscillations of a Modeled Mangrove-Root for Energy Harvesting and Hydrodynamics Characterization, in 71st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, November 18-20,2018.
Chang, K. and Constantinescu, G., Numerical Investigation of Flow and Turbulence Structure through and around a Circular Array of Rigid Cylinders, J. Fluid Mech, vol. 776, pp. 161-199,2015.
Chen, Z., Ortiz, A., Zong, L., and Nepf, H., The Wake Structure behind a Porous Obstruction and Its Implications for Deposition near a Finite Patch of Emergent Vegetation, J. Water Resour. Res., vol. 48, p. W09517,2012.
Feliciano, J.L., Kazemi, A., Carbajal, G., Tutkun, M., Bocanegra Evans, H., Curet, O., and Castillo, L., Parametrization of Hydrodynamics of Mangrove Root-Inspired Model for Coastline Protection and Energy Harvesting, in APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting Abstracts, 2017.
Gomez, D., Castillo, E., Kazemi, A., and Curet, O., Mangrove-Like System for Harvesting Tidal Energy, in 71st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, November 18-20,2018.
Kazemi, A., Hydrodynamics of Mangrove Root-Type Models, Bioinsp. Biomimet., vol. 12, no. 5, 2017. DOI: 10.1088/1748-3190/aa7ccf.
Kazemi, A. and Curet, O., PIV Measurements and Flow Characteristics Downstream of Mangrove Root Models, in APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting Abstracts, 2016. DOI: 10.1103/BAPS.2016.DFD.D3.5.
Kazemi, A., Parry, S., Van de Riet, K., and Curet, O., The Effect of Porosity and Flexibility on the Hydrodynamics behind a Mangrove-Like Root Model, in APS Meeting Abstracts, 2015. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.13587.89122.
Kazemi, A., Van de Riet, K., and Curet, O.M., Hydrodynamics of Mangrove-Type Root Models: The Effect of Porosity, Spacing Ratio and Flexibility, Bioinsp. Biomimet., vol. 12, no. 5, p. 056003,2017a.
Kazemi, A., Van de Riet, K., and Curet, O.M., Volumetric PIV behind Mangrove-Type Root Models, in APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting Abstracts, Denver, Colorado, USA, November 19-21,2017b.
Kazemi, A., Van de Riet, K., and Curet, O.M., Drag Coefficient and Flow Structure Downstream of Mangrove Root-Type Models through PIV and Direct Force Measurements, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 073801,2018a.
Kazemi, A., Evans, H.B., Van de Riet, K., Castillo, L., and Curet, O.M., Hydrodynamics of Mangrove Roots and Its Applications in Coastal Protection, in Oceans 2018 MTS/IEEE, Charleston, SC, pp. 1-8,2018b.
Kazemi, A., Castillo Charris, E.E., Gomez, D., Bocanegra Evans, H., Curet, O.M., and Castillo, L., Energy Harvesting from the Flow Induced Motion of Flexible Mangrove Root-Type Models with Different Flexibilities, in AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2018c. DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10500627.1.
Kazemi, A., Bocanegra Evans, H., Curet, O., and Castillo, L., On the Role of Mangrove Root Flexibility and Porosity in Sediment Deposition and Erosion Control, in 71st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, November 18-20,2018d.
Mazda, Y., Wolanski, E., King, B., Sase, A., Ohtsuka, D., and Magi, M., Drag Force due to Vegetation in Mangrove Swamps, J. Mangroves Salt Marshes, vol. 1, pp. 193-199,2016.
Mazda, Y. and Wolanski, E., Hydrodynamics and Modeling of Water Flow in Mangrove Areas, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, Nepf, H.M. and Koch, E.W., Vertical Secondary Flows in Submersed Plant-Like Arrays, Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 44, pp. 1072-1080,1999.
Nicolle, A. and Eames, I., Numerical Study of Flow through and around a Circular Array of Cylinders, J. Fluid Mech, vol. 679, pp. 1-31,2011.
Ortiz, A.C., Ashton, A., and Nepf, H., Mean and Turbulent Velocity Fields near Rigid and Flexible Plants and the Implications for Deposition, J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surface, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 2585-2599,2013.
Tinoco, R.O. and Cowen, E.A., The Direct and Indirect Measurement of Boundary Stress and Drag on Individual and Complex Arrays of Elements, Exp. Fluids, vol. 54, p. 1509,2013.
Tinoco, R.O. and Coco, G., Observations of the Effect of Emergent Vegetation on Sediment Resuspension under Unidirectional Currents and Waves, Earth Surf. Dyn, vol. 2, pp. 83-96,2014.
Vandenbruwaene, W., Maris, T., Cox, T.J.S., Cahoon, D.R., Meire, P., and Temmerman, S., Sedimentation and Response to Sea-Level Rise of a Restored Marsh with Reduced Tidal Exchange: Comparison with a Natural Tidal Marsh, Geomorphology, vol. 130, pp. 115-126,2011.
Zong, L. and Nepf, H., Flow and Deposition in and around a Finite Patch of Vegetation, Geomorphology, vol. 116, pp. 363-372, 2010.
Zong, L. and Nepf, H., Vortex Development Behind a Finite Porous Obstruction in a Channel, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 691, pp. 368-391,2011.
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