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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 1.841 5-Year IF: 1.927 SJR: 0.627 SNIP: 0.516 CiteScore™: 1.96

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2017018935
pages 53-62

Applications of Three-Dimensional Cell Cultures in the Early Stages of Drug Discovery, Focusing on Gene Expressions, Drug Metabolism, and Susceptibility

Maddaly Ravi
Department of Human Genetics, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Technology, and Research, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai 600116, India

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures represent advances in the way in which cells are grown in vitro, and they are gaining ground for a variety of applications. Advantages of 3D systems include reliable and realistic study endpoints. Cells grown in 3D conditions mimic in vivo conditions to an extent that is not possible with traditional 2D cell-culture methods. One major area in which 3D cell cultures have proven to make a difference is with drug discovery. The facets taken advantage of for drug discovery are the cells' complex microenvironment, including the production of extracellular matrices, altered gene expressions and their protein products, drug metabolism, and susceptibility to drugs when compared to 2D cultures. Altered protein and gene expressions are useful for drug-target identification. The susceptibility of 3D cultured cells for drug-induced effects can be used to obtain realistic data in a dose-dependent manner that can aid in identifying effective drug dosage. This review presents the contributions of 3D cell cultures for drug discovery, taking into consideration gene and protein expressions, drug metabolism, and susceptibility to drugs as the major focus points.


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