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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 1.841 5-Year IF: 1.927 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.516 CiteScore™: 1.96

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2017019192
pages 91-97

Localization of the Werner Protein Together with H2AX in γ-Irradiation-Induced Neoplastic Transformed Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Nedime Serakinci
Near East University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Genetics, Near East Avenue, Nicosia 99138, Northern Cyprus; Near East University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Near East Avenue, Nicosia 99138, Northern Cyprus
Tufan Cankaya
Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty
Steen Kølvraa
Near East University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Genetics, Near East Avenue, Nicosia 99138, Northern Cyprus


The H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), and Werner (WRN) are important proteins for genome and telomere maintenance. WRN has a major role in genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via base excision repair, homologous recombination, or nonhomologous end joining. H2AX plays a part in the rapid, sensitive, cellular response to the ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents that cause DSBs. This occurs when radiation-induced DSBs trigger the activation of H2AX and begin the damage-repair process. In this study, we investigate the role and localization of WRN together with DNA damage marker H2AX at the radiation-induced damaged sides of both the telomere-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hMSC-telomere 1 (hMSC-telo1) and in control primary hMSCs. Phosphorylated H2AX and WRN immune staining enabled evaluation of overall genomic integrity and damage/repair. We used peptide nucleic acid−fluorescent in situ hybridization to visualize telomeric damage as a short-term effect. A high-level WRN signal was observed in both primary hMSCs and telomerase-immortalized hMSCs after the cells had been subjected to infrared radiation. Afterward, the irradiation level of the WRN signals decreased considerably, especially in later passages, and WRN was nondetectable in the latest passages of the hMSC Telo1 cells. Contrary to this finding, we found that levels of H2AX phosphorylation in hMSC-telo1 cells increased with time, especially at telomere sides, suggesting that cells with long telomeres and high telomerase activity have the advantage of maintaining genomic integrity. Evaluation of localization of WRN signals demonstrated that WRN does not leave the nucleolus after irradiation. We did not detect the WRN signal at the telomere sides, but we could detect H2AX at the telomeric sides. Thus, our overall data suggest that the WRN protein is not involved in irradiationinduced DNA damage/repair, even at telomeric sides in hMSC and hMSC-telo1.

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