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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 2.156 5-Year IF: 2.255 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.599 CiteScore™: 3

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2016017455
pages 353-362

Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Hepatitis C Virus Pathogenesis and Treatment

Usman Ali Ashfaq
Department of Bioinformatics & Biotechnology, Government College University, 38000 Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal
Department of Bioinformatics & Biotechnology, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Saba Khaliq
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are rising every day, and viruses appear to be the most dangerous pathogens in the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accepted as one of the major destructive factors of promoting severe hepatic disorders by infecting more than 180 million individuals throughout the world. Chronic infection caused by HCV poses a serious global health emergency and appears to be a powerful threat to humanity. Almost 20 years have passed since the disclosure of HCV, but even now, treatment preferences remain limited. Humans are born with a rapid and nonspecific mechanism to prevent viral attacks through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are evolutionary conserved cellular activator proteins responsible for recognizing specific components present on penetrating microbes and viruses. Recent research efforts in TLR biology suggest that targeting the TLRs and their signaling pathways during HCV infection could contribute to novel therapies against HCV. The mobilization of TLRs boosts antiviral communication and integrates the development of long-lasting acquired immune responses to limit viral pathogenesis. Both activation and suppression of TLRs are necessary for the efficient treatment of HCV. For the proper management and eradication of HCV, novel drugs that target TLRs and their signaling pathway are needed. This review summarizes the role of TLR signaling in HCV infection and treatment.


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