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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 1.841 5-Year IF: 1.927 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.516 CiteScore™: 1.96

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2019025273
pages 127-139

MicroRNAs as Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer

Arad Mobasher Aghdam
School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Atefeh Amiri
Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Reza Salarinia
Department of Medical Biotechnology and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran
Aria Masoudifar
Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran
Faezeh Ghasemi
Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Next to Milad Tower, Tehran, Iran
Hamed Mirzaei
Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most prevalent nonskin cancer and a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is routinely used for screening and early detection of prostate cancer; however, it does not reduce death from prostate cancer. Moreover, PSA is not specific for prostate cancer and results in high false-positive rates, and it is poorly correlated with cancer stage. Therefore, the need for another diagnostic and prognostic factor in prostate cancer is apparent. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs which are involved in modulation of gene expression posttranscriptionally. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that miRNAs play key roles in various physiological events. Deregulation of miRNAs is related to initiation and development of various diseases such as prostate cancer. It has been shown that various miRNAs (miR-34, miR-21, miR-155, miR-221, miR-222, and let-7) exert their effects by targeting a variety of cellular and molecular pathways (c-Myc, EZH2, c-RSC, BCL2L2, E2F6, ZEB, HMGA251, and CCND2) involved in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Hence, it seems that miRNA expression profiles can be seen as potential candidates for prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of prostate cancer. Here, we summarize various miRNAs as prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic biomarkers for prostate cancer therapy.


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