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International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering
IF: 1.016 5-Year IF: 1.194 SJR: 0.554 SNIP: 0.82 CiteScore™: 2

ISSN Print: 1543-1649
ISSN Online: 1940-4352

International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMultCompEng.v4.i2.70
pages 265-279

Modeling Ionic Continua Under Multifield Conditions

John G. Michopoulos
Head Code 6394, FASME Computational Multiphysics Systems Lab Naval Research Laboratory Washington DC 20375


Recent advances in the development of electroactive polymer materials and composites along with the need for new multifunctional exploitation of these materials have underlined the need for the multi-field modeling of their behavior. Behavioral modeling of these materials is essential for design, material qualification, and material certification for sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting applications. The present paper proposes and applies a methodology for modeling the behavior of ionic continua under multi-field influence at the macro length scale. The computational implementation of this methodology addresses generation and solution of both the constitutive and the field evolution equations by appropriate use of continuum mechanics, irreversible thermodynamics, and electrodynamics. An application of this methodology for the case of electric multi-component anisotropic hygrothermoelasticity generates a constitutive model for a large class of materials capable of actuation, sensing, and energy harvesting applications. A specialization of this theory for isotropic and bi-component chemo-thermo-electro-elastic materials is provided along with the corresponding field equations. To demonstrate the capabilities of this approach for realistic applications, a system of nonlinear governing partial differential equations is derived to describe the state evolution of large deflection plates made from such material systems. These equations represent the electro-hygro-thermal generalization of the well-known von-Karman equations for large deflection plates and capture the actuating behavior of these plates. Finally, numerical solutions of these equations for two sets of boundary conditions are presented to demonstrate solution feasibility and realism of modeling in the context of actuation-based applications.

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