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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.26 SNIP: 0.375 CiteScore™: 1.4

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2020034546
Forthcoming Article

Development and Challenges of Nanotherapeutic Formulations for Targeting Mitochondrial and Inflammatory Pathways in Lung and Brain Degenerative Diseases

Marko Manevski
Florida International University
Dinesh Devadoss
Florida International University
Ruben Castro
Florida International University
Lauren Delatorre
Florida International University
Adriana Yndart
Florida International University
Rahul Jayant
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Madhavan Nair
Florida International University
Hitendra Chand
Florida International University

ABSTRACT

Modern technological innovations in nanotechnology are currently being pursued for improving the treatment efficacies of various nanoparticle-based formulations. Mitochondria are among the primary cellular targets of these nanotherapeutics because they regulate a wide array of cellular responses. They are a cellular hub for oxidative phosphorylation, energy production, and cellular metabolism, and are an important determinant of cell fate, as they control cell death/survival pathways. The mitochondrial network plays a critical role in inflammatory responses that are central in many pathologic conditions such as aging-associated lung and brain degenerative diseases. Recent advancements in our understanding of the pathogenic pathways and the role of mitochondria therein have identified highly specific therapeutic targets in order to help develop personalized nanomedicine approaches for treatment. A wide array of nanoparticle-based formulations have now been employed for potential usage in both diagnosing and treating chronic and fatal conditions, with gold nanoparticles and liposomal encapsulation being of particular interest. In this review, we highlight and summarize the advantages and challenges of developing these nanoformulations for targeted and spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery. We discuss the potential of nanotherapy in neoplasms to target the mitochondrial regulated cell death pathways and recent seminal developments in liposomal nanotherapy against chronic inflammatory lung diseases. The need for further development of nanoparticle-based treatment options for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease are also discusse