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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.26 SNIP: 0.375 CiteScore™: 1.4

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2014011843
pages 137-191

Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Tissue Engineered Cartilage via Changes in Relaxation Times, Diffusion Coefficient, and Shear Modulus

Ziying Yin
Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Bioengineering (MC 563), Clinical Sciences North (CSN) W103, 820 S Wood St., Chicago, IL, 60612 USA


The primary goal of this paper is to describe a combined MR relaxation (T2 and T), diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]), and elastography (shear stiffness) method of fully characterizing the development of tissue-engineered cartilage in terms of the changes in its composition, structure, and mechanical properties during tissue growth. Then, we may better use MR-based methodologies to noninvasively monitor and optimize the cartilage tissue engineering process without sacrificing the constructs. This process begins by demonstrating the potential capability of T2, T, ADC, and shear stiffness in characterizing a scaffold-free engineered cartilage. The results show that, in addition to the conventional T2 and ADC, T and MRE can be used as potential biomarkers to assess the specific changes in proteoglycan content and mechanical properties of engineered cartilage during culture. Moreover, to increase the efficiency of MR characterization, two new methodologies for simultaneous acquisition of diffusion and MRE (dMRE), and T and MRE (T-MRE) are introduced that allow the simultaneous characterization of both biochemical and mechanical properties of engineered cartilage tissue. The feasibilities of dMRE and T-MRE approaches are validated on tissue-mimicking phantoms. The results show good correspondence between simultaneous acquisitions and conventional separate acquisition methods.

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