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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v28.i56.70
pages 40-51

Functioning Mechanisms of Water Biosensors of Electromagnetic Radiation

L. D. Gapochka
Dr. of Sci. (Biological), Principal Staff Scientist at the Biological Faculty, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
M. G. Gapochka
Cd. of Sci. (Ph. and Math.), Senior Lecturer at the Physical Faculty, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Anatolii Fedorovich Korolev
Cd. of Sciences (Phys.-Math.), Associate Professor at the Radio Physics Chair of the Moscow State University, Russia
A. V. Roshchin
Dr. of Sci. (Tech.), Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Anatolii Petrovich Sukhorukov
Department of Photonics and Microwaves Structures, Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, Moscow 119899, Russia
N. N. Sysoev
Physical Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia
I. V. Timoshkin
Research Officer at the Theoretic Department, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


The effect of microwaves on liquid water was investigated by using biosensors and physiochemical techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spectrophotometry. The results obtained provided evidence for a nonthermal effect of microwaves on liquid water.

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