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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.243 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v28.i12.140
pages 81-86

Effects of Esophageal Stimulation in Healthy Subjects

Andrew May
Departments of Medicine and Electrical and Computer Engineering, HSC 3E 25, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada
Stephan Hollerbach
Ruhr-Universitaet of Bochum, Bochum, Germany
Debbie Fitzpatrick
Departments of Medicine and Electrical and Computer Engineering, HSC 3E 25, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada
Absar Bajwa
Departments of Medicine and Electrical and Computer Engineering, HSC 3E 25, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada
Gervais Tougas
McMaster University
Ernest L. Fallen
Departments of Medicine and Electrical and Computer Engineering, HSC 3E 25, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada
Glen Shine
Departments of Medicine and Electrical and Computer Engineering, HSC 3E 25, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada
Adrian R. M. Upton
Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N3Z5, Canada

ABSTRACT

We studied the effects of esophageal electrical stimulation on heart rate variability power spectra (PS/HRV) and cortical evoked potentials (EPs) in healthy subjects. The intensity of stimulation was varied from 2.7 to 20 mA. We found that the amplitude of the cortical evoked potentials (amplitude of the N2/P2 peak) increased from 5.1 ± 0.7 mV at 5 mA to 16.3 ± 1.1 mV at 20 mA. The PS/HRV showed an increase in the vagal modulation of the sinus node. When the stimulation frequency was varied from 0.1 to 1 Hz at a constant intensity of 15 mA, the amplitude of cortical EPs (N2/P2 peak) decreased with increase in the frequency of stimulation (p < 0.05). The LF:HF ratio decreased significantly for all frequencies of stimulation (p < 0.005). An experimental paradigm to evoke the cognitive component in the cortical EPs yielded a peak around 354 ms following the stimulus.


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