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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v28.i12.380
pages 219-223

An Investigation of Hybrid III and Living Human Drop Tests

Keith Friedman
Friedman Research, 4377 Via Esperanza, Santa Barbara, California 93110
Fiona Gaston
Friedman Research, 4377 Via Esperanza, Santa Barbara, California 93110
Jack Bish
Friedman Research, 4377 Via Esperanza, Santa Barbara, California 93110
Donald Friedman
Consultant, Santa Barbara, California
Anthony Sances, Jr.
Biomechanics Institute, 3202 Campanil Dr., Santa Barbara CA 93109

ABSTRACT

The effect of roof crush on restrained occupants has often been discussed without regard to the headroom available, effectiveness of belts, and location of roof crush. In this article, the question of the ability to protect a simply restrained occupant in an environment in which the roof does not crush is addressed. The subjects were inverted and dropped vertically in noncrushable production vehicle compartments and a specially designed drop fixture. Data collected includes head accelerations, vehicle accelerations, head displacements, belt angles, anchor point location, seat position, and belt tension for a variety of occupant sizes.
To our knowledge, these are the first inverted living human vertical studies to be scientifically documented and reported. It was found that no head or neck injuries resulted from drops of up to 91 cm and velocities up to 4.2 m/sec for restrained occupants in the absence of roof crush.


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