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Journal of Porous Media

Impact factor: 1.035

ISSN Print: 1091-028X
ISSN Online: 1934-0508

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Journal of Porous Media

DOI: 10.1615/JPorMedia.v12.i5.20
pages 403-415

Shrinkage/Swelling Behavior of Knitted Fabrics during Relative Humidity Cycles Determined by X-ray Imaging

N. Bhouri
LERMAB-UMRINRA 1093, ENGREF 14, rue Girardet, 54042 Nancy Cedex, France; and LESTE, ENIM Avenue IBN ELJAZZAR, 5019 Monastir, Tunisie
Eric Badel
LERMAB-UMRINRA 1093, ENGREF 14, rue Girardet, 54042 Nancy Cedex, France
Sassi Ben Nasrallah
Energy and Thermal Systems Laboratory, National Engineering School of Monastir, University of Monastir, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia
Patrick Perre
Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes et des Materiaux, Ecole Centrale Paris, CentraleSupelec, campus de Chatenay-Malabry Grande Voie des Vignes F-92 295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex, Paris, France


The 2D deformation of knitted jersey ready-to-wear clothing made of cotton was measured during adsorption and desorption steps. A digital x-ray imaging system was coupled with a climatic chamber to control temperature and relative humidity during the cycle. Images of the samples were recorded at each different equilibrium state of the cycle. Finally, an image correlation process was used to compare the recorded images and to determine the 2D strain. The deformations along course (εcc) and wale (εww) directions and the shear (εwc) were measured for four identical samples. The repeatability of the results shows the reproducibility of the measurement process. These original experimental results establish a clear anisotropic shrinkage and swelling behavior between the wale and course directions. The anisotropic ratio (εcc/εww) rises up to 2 during the adsorption step. Moreover, they enlighten a hysteresis between the adsorption and desorption steps. It denotes the effect of the material's history and it is explained by geometrical considerations of the structure at the microscopic level and the relationship with the manufacturing process. Finally, the shear strain is explained at the microscopic level by electronic microscopy (ESEM) observations that show the fibers' twist dissymmetry between the two wings of the stitch.