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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
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ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2020029870
pages 161-182

Tuberculosis Resistance and Nanoparticles: Combating the Dual Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Macrophages for Tuberculosis Management

Aisha Rauf
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Muhammad Farhan Sohail
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan; Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan
Hafiz Shoaib Sarwar
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan; Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan
Sara Naveed
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Salma Batool
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Umair Amin
Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Philipps University Marburg, Germany
Imran Ali
Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Waqas Saleem
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Sobia Razzaq
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Mubashar Rehman
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Gul Shahnaz
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan


Increasing drift in antimicrobial therapy failure against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), and the advent of extended resistant strains strongly demand discovery of mechanisms underlying development of drug resistance. The emergence of resistance against anti-TB drugs has reached an alarming level in various parts of the world, providing an active platform for the design of new targeted drug delivery. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important role in controlling TB pathogenesis. At macrophage activation, ROS that are produced inside macrophages directly kill resident bacteria. These ROS possess a dual character because they can kill macrophages along with the resident bacteria. Targeting these ROS can play a remarkable part in overcoming resistance of conventional drugs. Nanoparticles (NPs) have evolved as a potential drug carrier for targeted delivery and elimination of various resistance mechanisms against antimicrobials. Receptor-mediated targeting of macrophages via different NPs may be a promising strategy for combating drug resistance and enhancing efficacy of old-fashioned antimycobacterial agents.


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