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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2014010267
pages 241-261

Scavenger Receptor-A (CD204): A Two-Edged Sword in Health and Disease

Jim L. Kelley
Departments of Internal Medicine, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614
Tammy R. Ozment
Departments of Surgery, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614
Chuanfu Li
Departments of Surgery, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614
John B. Schweitzer
Departments of Pathology, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614
David L. Williams
Departments of Surgery, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614

ABSTRACT

Scavenger receptor A (SR-A), also known as the macrophage scavenger receptor and cluster of differentiation 204 (CD204), plays roles in lipid metabolism, atherogenesis, and a number of metabolic processes. However, recent evidence points to important roles for SR-A in inflammation, innate immunity, host defense, sepsis, and ischemic injury. Herein, we review the role of SR-A in inflammation, innate immunity, host defense, sepsis, cardiac and cerebral ischemic injury, Alzheimer's disease, virus recognition and uptake, bone metabolism, and pulmonary injury. Interestingly, SR-A is reported to be host protective in some disease states, but there is also compelling evidence that SR-A plays a role in the pathophysiology of other diseases. These observations of both harmful and beneficial effects of SR-A are discussed here in the framework of inflammation, innate immunity, and endoplasmic reticulum stress.


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