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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Print: 1040-8401
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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v15.i3-4.60
pages 285-316

T Lymphocyte Migration: The Influence of Interactions via Adhesion Molecules, the T Cell Receptor, and Cytokines

Dan Hauzenberger
Department of Clinical Immunology, Umea University Hospital, 901 85 Umea, Sweden; Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
Julius Klominek
Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Lung Medicine, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
Sten-Erik Bergstrom
Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Lung Medicine, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
Karl-Gosta Sundqvist
Department of Clinical Immunology, Umea University Hospital, 901 85 Umea, Sweden; Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden

ABSTRACT

Although lymphocytes have been studied extensively with respect to a number of motile aspects the understanding of directed lymphocyte motility and its regulation has increased relatively slowly. T lymphocyte migration/translocation in vivo and in vitro are critically dependent on the avidity of adhesive lymphocyte receptors for endothelial cell ligands and extracellular matrix (ECM) components and on the capacity of the lymphocytes to undergo a motile response. Lymphocytes are rendered motile by adhesion to endothelial cells and ECM components. Thus, T lymphocytes exhibit chemotactic and haptotactic migration to the ECM components fibronectin, laminin, and collagen type IV. This directed migration is mediated by β1-integrins and separate T-lymphocyte lines have a functional specialization using either α4β1 or α5β1 during chemo- and haptotaxis to ECM components, although the same cell line may use both integrins for adhesion. Noteworthy, signals triggering T cell migration to ECM components seem to be delivered preferentially via α4β1 or αLβ2. The T cell antigen receptor cannot by itself trigger T lymphocyte migration to fibronectin, laminin, or collagen type IV but does so in collaboration with signals via α4β1. It follows that the migration-triggering signals can be separated from the integrin interactions with matrix components that mediate the chemo- and haptotactic migration per se. This suggests that T cell recruitment to inflammatory sites is induced by antigen receptor signals and β1 - and β2-integrin signals in synergy. Cytokines with chemokinetic properties may collaborate with lymphocyte counterreceptors on endothelial cells and with ECM components in control of the lymphocyte migratory pathways and specifically attract lymphocyte subsets to different compartments. T lymphocytes are endowed with multiple enzymes, classified as serine proteinases or metalloproteinases, which can degrade extracellular matrix components. These enzymes may play an important role for the capacity of T cells to migrate and infiltrate tissues.


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