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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v19.i1.20
15 pages

Mechanisms of Lipid Antigen Presentation by CD1

Robin M. Jackman
Lymphocyte Biology Section, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115;
Steven A. Porcelli
Lymphocyte Biology Section, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115;

ABSTRACT

CDl is a family of cell surface glycoproteins that are related in structure and evolutionary origin to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded antigen-presenting molecules. In contrast to MHC-encoded antigen-presenting molecules, CDl binds and presents lipid and glycolipid antigens for specific recog¬nition by T cell antigen receptors. Recent work shows that several CDl family members colocalize with MHC class II proteins within the endocytic system of antigen-presenting cells. Detailed studies of the intracellular trafficking of CDl proteins reveal new mechanisms controlling delivery of antigen-presenting molecules to particular compartments within cells. The combination of overlapping yet distinct trafficking routes for the various CDl family members, combined with emerging information on the heterogeneity of CDl-presented lipid antigens, suggest a model whereby different members of the CDl family could present antigens that occur in various cellular compartments. Furthermore, the CDl family as a group may present antigens from pathogens that are not normally accessible to or efficiently surveyed by the MHC Class I or II systems. The discovery of this third pathway for antigen presentation, together with the appreciation of a previously unrecognized universe of nonpeptide lipid antigens for T cell responses, are likely to have broad implications for our understanding of the cell-mediated immune response and its role in health and disease.


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