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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
IF: 1.404 5-Year IF: 3.347 SJR: 0.706 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v19.i2.10
20 pages

Immune-Derived Cytokines in the Nervous System: Epigenetic Instructive Signals or Neuropathogenic Mediators?

Maria De Cristofaro
Fabrizio Ensoli
Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Rome "La Sapienza", V.le Universita 37, 00185, Rome, Italy
Valeria Fiorelli
Giuseppe Luzi
Donatella Santini Muratori
Arianna Novi
Maria Caterina Sirianni
laboratory of Immunology, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Viale dell'Università 37, 00185 Rome, Italy
Simone Topino
Laura Vincenzi


The investigation of the effects of inflammatory cytokines (IC) on the growth and differentiation of neural cells has provided new insights on the role of such soluble mediators in nervous system development and/or plastic remodeling as well as in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders, which are characterized by chronic IC dysregulation in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the study of the interaction between CNS and immune-derived soluble signals in physiological or pathological conditions is of increasing interest. This review first discusses experimental evidence supporting the instructive/permissive role of immune-derived cytokines on CNS development and plasticity. Next, we focus on human neurological disease states such as multiple sclerosis and the neurodegeneration associated to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in which different inflammatory cytokines have been proposed as potential neuropathogenic mediators.

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