Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.149 SNIP: 0.16 CiteScore™: 0.29

ISSN Print: 2150-766X
ISSN Online: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.2019028018
pages 229-246

STATIC FIRING TESTS OF ALUMINUM-WATER PROPELLANT MOTORS CONTAINING V-ALEX NANOPOWDERS

Shahar Wollmark
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion I.I.T., Technion City, Haifa, Israel
Yinon Yavor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mcgill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion I.I.T., Technion City, Haifa, Israel; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Afeka College of Engineering, Tel-Aviv, Israel

ABSTRACT

The performance parameters of solid propellants comprised of V-ALEX nanoaluminum powders and water were investigated by conducting laboratory scale rocket motor static firing experiments. Static firing experiments were conducted for two propellant compositions: V-ALEX based propellants with d50 = 60 nm, and a bimodal aluminum composition. Full grain configuration and center perforated grain configuration were tested with varying grain lengths and nozzle throat diameters. It was found that center perforated grains resulted in higher pressure and thrust values than full grain configurations, where an increase in grain length and a decrease in throat diameter yielded higher specific impulse values, as expected. Pure V-ALEX propellants demonstrated higher specific impulse and characteristic velocities than bimodal aluminum compositions with ~ 146 s and ~ 1046 m/s for the pure 100% nano V-ALEX composition, versus ~ 103 s and ~ 1005 m/s for the bimodal composition. The residual mass retained inside the rocket motor after each experiment ranged between 20% and 32%, a significant amount of unejected mass, which lowered the actual performance parameters farther from theoretical values. Experiments conducted with increased water content (Φ<1), although having lower propellant densities, produced higher gravimetric and volumetric specific impulses due to the water acting as an additional working fluid accelerated through the nozzle.

REFERENCES

  1. Connell Jr., T.L., Risha, G.A., Yetter, R.A., Yang, V, and Son, S.F., (2012) Combustion of Bimodal Aluminum Particles and Ice Mixtures, Int. J. Energetic Mater. Chem. Propuls., 11(3), 2012.

  2. D'Andrea, B., Lillo, F., Faure, A., and Perut, C., (2000) A New Generation of Solid Propellants for Space Launchers, Acta Astronautica, 47(2), pp. 103-112.

  3. Dokhan, A., Price, E.W., Seitzman, J.M., and Sigman, R.K., (2002) The Effects of Bimodal Aluminum with Ultrafine Aluminum on the Burning Rates of Solid Propellants, Proc. Combust. Institute, 29(2), pp. 2939-2946.

  4. Foote, J.P., Linebery, J.T., Thompson, B.R., and Wilkelman, B.C., (1996) Investigation of Aluminum Particle Combustion for Underwater Propulsion Applications, in 32nd Joint Propuls. Conf and Exhibit, AIAA Paper No. 1996-3086.

  5. Foote, J.P., Thompson, B.R., and Lineberry, J.T., (2001) Combustion of Aluminum with Steam for Underwater Propulsion, inAdv. Chem. Propuls., G.D. Roy, Ed., FL: CRC Press, pp. 133-145.

  6. Georges, W., Yavor, Y., Goroshin, S., and Higgins, A.J., (2014) Burning Rate of Nano-Aluminum Water Propellant at High Pressures, in 52nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA Paper No. 2014-0648.

  7. Greiner, L., (1960) Selection of High Performing Propellants for Torpedoes, ARS J., 30(12), pp.1161-1163.

  8. Greiner, L., (1967) Underwater Missile Propulsion, Arlington, VA: Compass Publications, 1967.

  9. Ingenito, A. and Bruno, C., (2004) Using Aluminum for Space Propulsion, J. Propuls. Power, 20(6), pp. 1056-1063.

  10. Kittel, D.E., Pourpoint, T.L., Groven, L.J., and Son, S.F., (2011) Further Development of an Aluminum and Water Solid Rocket Motor, in 47th AIAA Joint Propuls. Conf. and Exhibit, AIAA Paper No. 2011-6137.

  11. Kittell, D.E., Groven, L.J., Sippel, T.R., Pourpoint, T.L., and Son, S.F., (2013) Dependence of Nano-Aluminum and Water Propellant Combustion on pH and Rheology, Combust. Sci. Technol., 185(5), pp. 817-834.

  12. Maggi, F., Bandera, A., Galfetti, L., DeLuca, L.T., and Jackson, T.L., (2010) Efficient Solid Rocket Propulsion for Access to Space, Acta Astronaut., 66(11), pp. 1563-1573.

  13. McBride, B.J. and Gordon, G., (1996) Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications (CEA), NASA Reference Publications 1311, accessed July 7, 2018, from http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/CEAWeb/.

  14. Milligan, D., Octavio, C., and Daniel, G., (2006) SMART-1 Electric Propulsion: An Operational Perspective, in SpaceOps 2006 Conf., AIAA Paper No. 2006-5767.

  15. Propellant Evaluation Program (PEP), (1986) Theoretical Computations of Equilibrium Compositions, Thermodynamic Properties, and Performance Characteristics of Propellant Systems-Developed by D.R. Cruise, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA.

  16. Racca, G.D., Marini, A., Stagnaro, L., Van Dooren, J., Di Napoli, L., Foing, B.H., Lumb, R., Volp, J., Brinkmann, J., Griinagel, R., and Estublier, D., (2002) SMART-1 Mission Description and Development Status, Planetary Space Sci., 50(14-15), pp. 1323-1337.

  17. Risha, G.A., Connell, Jr., T.L., Yetter, R.A., Sundaram, D.S., and Yang, V., (2014) Combustion of Frozen Nano-Aluminum and Water Mixtures, J. Propuls. Power, 30(1), pp. 133-143.

  18. Risha, G.A., Sabourin, J.L., Yang, V., Yetter, R.A., Son, S.F., and Tappan, B.C., (2008) Combustion and Conversion Efficiency of Nano-Aluminum-Water Mixtures, Combust. Sci. Technol., 180(12), pp. 2127-2142.

  19. Risha, G.A., Son, S.F., Yetter, R.A., and Yang, V, (2007) Combustion of Nano-Aluminum and Liquid Water, Proc. Combust. Inst., vol. 31(2), pp. 2029-2036.

  20. Saccoccia, G., (2004) ESA Spacecraft Propulsion Activities, in 4th Int. Spacecraft Propuls. Conf., 555.

  21. Schuyer, M., (1997) European Capabilities and Prospects for a Spaceborne Gravimetric Mission, in Geodetic Boundary Value Problems in View of the One Centimeter Geoid, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 569-589.

  22. Sippel, T.R., Pourpoint, T.L., and Son, S.F., (2013) Combustion of Nano-Aluminum and Water Propellants: Effect of Equivalence Ratio and Safety/Aging Characterization, Propel. Explos. Pyrotech., 38(1), pp. 56-66.

  23. Sippel, T., Son, S., Risha, G., and Yetter, R., (2008) Combustion and Characterization of Nanoscale Aluminum and Ice Propellants, in 44th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propuls. Conf. Exhibit, AIAA Paper No. 2008-5040.

  24. Tappan, B.C., Dirmyer, M.R., and Risha, G.A., (2014) Evidence of a Kinetic Isotope Effect in Nano-Aluminum and Water Combustion, Angewandte Chemie, 126(35), pp. 9372-9375.

  25. Trowell, K.A., Wang, J., Wang, Y, Yavor, Y, Goroshin, S., Bergthorson, J.M., Frost, D.L., St-Charles, J.C., and Dubois, C., (2017) Effect of Particle Coating on the Thermal Response of Mixtures of Micro- and Nano-Aluminum Particles with Water, J. Thermal Anal. Calorimetry, 10(1), pp. 1027-1036.

  26. Wollmark, S., Alfandari, L., and Yavor, Y, (2017a) Burning Rates of Viton-Coated Aluminum and Water Mixtures, in 7th European Conf. for Aeronautics and Space Sciences.

  27. Wollmark, S., Kandiah, N., and Yavor, Y, (2017b) Combustion of Al-Water Propellants Containing Bi-Modal Aluminum: Micron and V-ALEX Powders, in 31st Annual Symp. of the Israeli Section of the Combustion Institute.

  28. Wollmark, S. and Yavor, Y, (2018) Burning Rates of Nano-Aluminum-Water Solid Propellants at Various Pressures, J. Propuls. Power, 35(1), pp. 173-181.

  29. Wood, T.D., Pfeil, M.A., Pourpoint, T.L., and Son, S.F., (2009a) Aluminum-Ice (ALICE) Propellants for Hydrogen Generation and Propulsion, in 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propuls. Conf. Exhibit, AIAA Paper No. 2009-4877.

  30. Wood, T.D., Pfeil, M.A., Pourpoint, T.L., Tsohas, J., and Son, S.F., (2009b) Feasibility Study and Demonstration of an Aluminum and Ice Solid Propellant, in 45th AIAA Joint Propuls. Conf. Exhibit, AIAA Paper No. 2009-4890.


Articles with similar content:

EFFECTS OF NANO-METRIC ALUMINUM POWDER ON THE PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE SOLID PROPELLANTS
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.14, 2015, issue 4
Xu Huixiang, Li Yonghong, Luigi T. DeLuca, Liu Fangli, Weiqiang Pang, Zhao Fengqi, Fan Xuezhong, Xie Wuxi
COMBUSTION OF BIMODAL ALUMINUM PARTICLES AND ICE MIXTURES
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.11, 2012, issue 3
Steven F. Son, Grant A. Risha, Vigor Yang, Terrence L. Connell, Jr., Richard A. Yetter
INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR HIGH-SPEED UNDERWATER PROPULSION
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.17, 2018, issue 2
Alon Gany
BORON PROPELLANTS FOR DUCTED ROCKET APPLICATION
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.2, 1993, issue 1-6
Christian Perut, B. Mahe
THE RESEARCH OF STABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF XUZHOU COAL WATER PASTE FOR PFBC APPLICATIONS
Energy and Environment, 1995, Vol.0, 1995, issue
Kefa Cen, XuGuang Jiang, JiaLin Yang, JianHua Yan, Mingjiang Ni, Yong Chi, GuoQuan Huang