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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.625 5-Year IF: 1.63 SJR: 0.402 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 2.3

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2018026204
pages 151-161

Beneficial Outcomes of Kimchi Prepared with Amtak Baechu Cabbage and Salting in Brine Solution: Anticancer Effects in Pancreatic and Hepatic Cancer Cells

Gyl-Hoon Song
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea
Eui-Seong Park
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea
Seung-Min Lee
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea
Dong-Bok Park
Jeilseed Bio Co., Ltd., Jeungpyeong-gun, Chungchengbuk-do, 27906, Republic of Korea
Kun-Young Park
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Cha University, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13488, Republic of Korea

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the anticancer effects of kimchi prepared using the standard Baechu cabbage and Amtak Baechu cabbage; salting was achieved by either the dry salt treatment or brine solution. Four different kimchi samples were prepared for this study: (1) the standard Baechu cabbage and dry salt treatment method (SK-D); (2) the Amtak Baechu cabbage and dry salt treatment method (AK-D); (3) the standard Baechu cabbage and brine solution treatment method (SK-B); and (4) the Amtak Baechu cabbage and brine solution treatment method (AK-B). The anticancer effects of kimchi were evaluated using human pancreas cancer cells (Capan-2) and human liver cancer cells (HepG2). Both cancer cells showed a significant increase in cell growth inhibition when exposed to AK-D and AK-B compared with SK-D and SK-B (p < 0.05). At 2.0 mg/mL, the inhibition of Capan-2 cells was more than doubled after treatment with AK-B and AK-D compared with SK-B and SK-D, but was only 1.2 times in HepG2 cells. Assessment of mRNA and proteins related to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest revealed a significant increase of p21 levels after AK-D and AK-B treatment compared with SK-D and SK-B. In addition, the ongoing cytotoxic effects were significantly higher with AK-B compared with AK-D (p < 0.05). In Western blot analysis, the anticancer effects were more apparent in Capan-2 cells than in the HepG2 cells. Overall, these results indicate that kimchi made with Amtak Baechu cabbage and treated with brine solution (AK-B) had a superior anticancer potential against both types of cancer cells, with the effects being greater in pancreatic cancer cells compared with liver cancer cells.


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