Begell House Inc.
TsAGI Science Journal
TSAGI
1948-2590
45
8
2014
GRID INFLUENCE ON AIR FLOW NON-UNIFORMITY IN WIND TUNNELS
669-696
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2014012526
Yevgenii Ustinovich
Repik
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180 Russia
Ivan Sergeevich
Inshakov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
experimental investigation
non-uniform flow field
non-uniform
flow field generator
grids
turbulence grids
vortex structure destroyer
velocity
profiles
turbulence level
The experimental results of the influence of fine-scale turbulence generated by the grids and vortex
structure destroyer (VSD) on an inhomogeneous flow field in a wind tunnel are presented. It is shown
that the application of turbulence grids leads to the dependence of the smoothing rate of non-uniform
velocity profiles and the turbulence level on the grid cell size. In particular, the installation of a finemeshed
grid results in a slower rate of smoothing of the non-uniform velocity profiles and velocity
fluctuations compared with the case without the grid. An optimal ratio between the cell size and the
scale of inhomogeneity, at which the most efficient equalizing of the flow field inhomogeneity takes
place, is found. When the VSD is installed in the large transverse gradient zone of the turbulence
level, the rate of equalizing this gradient is significantly diminished due to a skin friction decrease in
the turbulent boundary layer.
MULTIFORM PARTICLE-FLOW INTERACTION IN A CARRYING CONTINUUM GAS (REVIEW)
697-716
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013512
Alexey Vasil’evich
Kashevarov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhykovsky Str., Zhukovsky,
Moscow Region, 140180, Russian Federation
Al'bert Leonidovich
Stasenko
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, Zhukovsky, Moscow region, Russia, 140180
spherical and non-spherical particles
aerodynamic coefficients
heat and mass transfer
The worldwide literature devoted to theoretical and experimental investigations of mass, energy, momentum,
and angular momentum transfer between a separate solid particle and a flowing gas is
reviewed and briefly analyzed. In particular, the most examined spherical particle is considered as
a base case. The next step in shape complication is a spheroid (oblate or prolate ellipsoid). Data on
irregularly shaped particles are the poorest. The most useful and tested expressions are recommended
for drag and lift force coefficients, retarding and stall torques, and the Nusselt number as a function
of conventional and rotational Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. The presented data can be useful in
investigating the problems of aircraft icing in drop-crystal clouds, engine failure in gas-dust volcanic
emissions zones, blockage of Pitot tube channels (airspeed instrument) due to particles of natural
origin in the vicinity of airports, and the process of surface sandblasting optimization.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE NOZZLES OF SUBSONIC AND SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
717-737
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013398
Gennadii Nikolaevich
Lavrukhin
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) 1, Zhukovsky str., Zhukovsky, 140180, Moscow region, Russia
Vadim Alekseevich
Talyzin
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky Str., Zhukovsky 140180, Russia
nozzle
configuration (assembly)
thrust loss
separation
nonseparation
subsonic
supersonic
Results from fifty years of investigations of aircraft nozzles are summarized. The fundamental
achievements in aerogasdynamics of jet nozzles are formulated. Problems that still need to be solved
are addressed.
MODEL PRESENTATION OF THE COHERENT STRUCTURE IN THE DEVELOPED TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
739-758
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013391
Vladimir Alekseevich
Zharov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180, Russia
turbulent boundary layer
incompressible fluid
coherent structures
weak nonlinearity
A weakly nonlinear variant of the wave model of the developed turbulent boundary layer is considered.
The dispersion properties of the least-damping Tollmien-Schlichting waves are determined, and
the conditions for the existence of the three-wave resonance are analyzed. Equations for the coherent
and stochastic parts of fluctuations are derived on the basis of a multiscale method. In the discrete
presentation of the coherent structure, it is demonstrated that the sum of the squared absolute values
of the wave amplitudes in the three-wave resonance multiplied by the real weight factors is an invariant
of the original dynamic system. The range of positive values of the weight factors in the wave
space is found. The dynamics of the wave system in this range is finite. Reduced equations for the
coherent and stochastic parts of the flow are obtained, a scaling law is formulated, and the structure
of the Reynolds stress tensor is analyzed.
FLOW IN THE VICINITY OF THE PLANE OF SYMMETRY OF A DELTA WING WITH A SMALL SWEEP ANGLE IN THE STRONG INTERACTION REGIME
759-779
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013395
Georgiy Nikolaevich
Dudin
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1, Zhukovsky Str., Zhukovsky,
Moscow Region, 140180, Russian Federation
Y. N.
Soe
2Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 Russia
three-dimensional boundary layer
delta wing
strong interaction
The flow in a three-dimensional boundary layer in the vicinity of the plane of symmetry of a semiinfinite
flat delta wing with a small sweep angle in the strong viscous/inviscid interaction regime
is studied. The flow functions are expanded into a power series in the transverse coordinate and a
small parameter related to the sweep angle. Systems of ordinary differential equations and boundary
conditions for calculating the coefficients in terms of the coordinate/parameter expansions are given.
The sequence of solving the formulated boundary-value problems is determined, and the coefficients
of the first six terms of expansions are calculated.
INVESTIGATION OF THERMOCHEMICAL STABILITY OF THERMAL PROTECTION MATERIALS
781-802
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013546
Boris Evgen'evich
Zhestkov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky Str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region 140180, Russia
modeling conditions
high-temperature wind tunnels
hypersonic
high-enthalpy air flow
thermal protection materials
oxidation
corrosion
loss of
mass
mechanical load
This paper specifies the main modeling conditions for the hypersonic high-enthalpy air flow interaction
with the thermal protection materials of airspace vehicles. The methodology and technique of the
experiments on high-temperature material thermochemical stability in a hypersonic plasma flow are
given. The gas corrosion of a number of refractory ceramics and carbon-carbon materials at sample
temperatures of 1000-2500 K at regimes that model the space vehicle atmospheric entry is investigated.
The influence of mechanical load on the oxidation intensity of the studied carbon-carbon
materials is considered.
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING ACCURACY EVALUATION OF WIND TUNNEL MODELS BY MEASURING DATA FROM A COORDINATE-MEASURING MACHINE
803-824
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013357
M. A.
Arkhangelskaya
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
Vladimir Dmitrievich
Vermel
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180 Russia
V. F.
Zabaluev
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
P. M.
Nikolaev
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
Leonid Leonidovich
Chernyshev
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
manufacturing accuracy
wind tunnel model
coordinatemeasuring
machine (CMM)
mathematical model
geometric correspondence
The main geometric features of wind tunnel models and their units, such as the accuracy of the
model's location in the wind tunnel's test section, accuracy of the model's assembly, deviations from
specified aerodynamic twists and V-shaped wings, reproduction of the outlines of the main surface
profiles, etc., are evaluated by the model's surface points by measuring the data using a coordinatemeasuring
machine (CMM). Unlike traditional evaluations commonly found in engineering, in
which the accuracy of a part is found through measuring point deviations from the part's surface,
the separation of errors by components in the model's geometric features required to form the special
processing procedure based on a search of the geometric correspondence between the measuring
points and points of mathematical model and matching them by using a least-squares method. A way
to increase the convergence of the measuring data matching procedure to the mathematical model is
proposed for weakly curved surfaces. An example of evaluating manufacturing accuracy of a largesize
wind tunnel half-model of an airliner is presented.
ON POSSIBILITY OF CRITICAL FLIGHT REGIME STUDY IN WIND TUNNELS USING THREE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM GIMBALS
825-839
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013365
Alexander Nikolaevich
Khrabrov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180, Russia
Maria Evguenievna
Sidoryuk
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
Evgueniy Nikolaevich
Kolesnikov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
Yuriy Alexandrovich
Vinogradov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180, Russia
Igor Igorevich
Grishin
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky, Russia
Konstantin Anatolievich
Kolinko
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180, Russia
dynamic wind tunnel experiment
mathematical modeling
critical
flight regimes
high angles of attack
aircraft stability and controllability
The possibility of wind tunnel investigations of high-angles-of-attack aircraft dynamics using an
actively controlled scaled model on three-degree-of-freedom gimbals is shown. A kinematics of the
model motion on the gimbals is presented. Dynamic equations of motion are derived from the Lagrange
equations. The stability and controllability of aircraft motion without a control system and
with aerodynamics specified in a conventional table form are considered. The wing rock motion of the
aircraft model at high angles of attack is investigated. Simulations of self-induced oscillations on the
gimbals and in free flight are compared. The effects on the dynamics of the gimbal friction moments
and shift of the center of gravity in the model relative to the center of the gimbals are considered.
APPLICATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC ANALOGY FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE FLEXURAL CENTER OF PRISMATIC BARS COMPOSED OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS
841-850
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013361
Leonid Leonidovich
Teperin
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180, Russia
Tran Van
Hung
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Faculty of Aeromechanics and Flight Engineering, 16 Gagarina Str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
elasticity theory
flexural center
prismatic bars
hydrodynamic analogy
A method for the solution to the flexural center problem of prismatic bars composed of different
materials by means of hydrodynamic analogy is developed. The problem is reduced to evaluation of
the strength of the sources and vortices on the outer contour of the bar and along the boundaries
separating different materials. The results of numerical implementation are provided.
LAMINAR-TURBULENT TRANSITION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS (REVIEW) PART 2: TRANSITION PREDICTION AND METHODS OF BOUNDARY-LAYER LAMINARIZATION
851-887
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013660
Maxim Vladimirovich
Ustinov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, 140180, Russia
laminar-turbulent transition
hydrodynamic instability
turbulence
boundary layer
swept wing
boundary-layer control
Boundary-layer laminar-turbulent transition prediction methods and boundary-layer flow control
aimed at delaying the transition are described. These topics are considered in view of applications for
the design of airplanes with swept laminar wings and the development of computational fluid dynamics
methods meant for computing the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with a large laminar
part of the boundary layer.
INVESTIGATION OF A SIMPLIFIED SCHEME OF MULTIPLE PLASMA ACTUATOR FOR BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL
889-901
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013547
Marat Dzhaudatovich
Gamirullin
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky Str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180 Russia
Alexander Petrovich
Kuryachii
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) 1, Zhukovsky str., Zhukovsky, 140180, Moscow region
Vladimir Mikhailovich
Litvinov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky str. 1, Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180 Russia
Sergei Leonidovich
Chernyshev
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky, Moscow region, Russia
dielectric barrier discharge
plasma actuator
Pitot probe
ion wind
velocity
volumetric force
electric power
A new scheme of a series of electrogasdynamic actuators operating on the basis of a near-surface
dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), which are designed for boundary layer flow control on extended
aerodynamic surfaces, is experimentally studied. Some characteristics of the discharge excited on
a plate with nine DBD actuators aligned in a series with intermediate screening electrodes and a
common continuous accelerating electrode are determined. The velocity of air motion induced by the
actuators in an initially quiescent medium is measured. The volumetric force generated by the set
of actuators is estimated using an integral momentum method. A simple method for measuring the
average electric power consumed by the actuators is proposed.
LAMINAR-TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER ON THE SURFACE OF A HEMISPHERE IN HYPERSONIC AIR FLOW
903-913
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013556
Valerii Vladimirovich
Gorskii
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky Str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
Mikhail Aleksandrovich
Pugach
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky Str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), 9 Institutskiy Pereulok, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700, Russia
heat transfer
boundary layer
turbulence model
laminar-turbulent transition
Results predicted by two calculation methods (the method of the effective length and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic model of turbulence) are compared with experimental data on the heat flux distribution over the surface of a hemisphere at the Mach number M∞ = 5. A modification of the Cebeci-Smith turbulence model is proposed.
ESTIMATION OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT IN ICING CONDITIONS
915-926
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013629
Nadezhda Anatolievna
Borisova
JSC "Tupolev," 17 Academician Tupolev Embankment, Moscow, 105005, Russia
Dmitrii Vladimirovich
Goryachev
JSC "Tupolev," 17 Academician Tupolev Embankment, Moscow, 105005, Russia
Anatolii Borisovich
Koscheev
JSC "Tupolev," 17 Academician Tupolev Embankment, Moscow, 105005, Russia
method
icing
wing
aerodynamic characteristics
fast calculation
flight tests
ice simulators
thickness of the ice
A description of a method used in the fast calculation of changes in the aircraft aerodynamic characteristics
during flight under icing conditions is given in this paper. The presented dependences are
based on the results of wind tunnel tests and flight tests of airplanes with ice simulators and under
natural icing conditions. This method is most applicable at the initial stages of design.
ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF FREE MOLECULAR GAS FLOW REFLECTED FROM A SOLID BODY SURFACE
927-948
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013559
Alexander Ivanovich
Erofeev
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky Street, Zhukovsky,
Moscow Region, 140180, Russian Federation
Alexander Petrovich
Nikiforov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180 Russia
free molecular flow
interaction of gas with solid surface
velocity
distribution function
scattering indicatrix
Nochilla model
The results of an experimental investigation of the angular distribution of free molecular flow reflected
from a solid body surface obtained at the VAT-103 vacuum plant at TsAGI are presented. The form
of the scattering indicatrix is analyzed as a function of the energy, angle of incidence, composition
of the molecular beams, and the surface material and temperature of flat models. The parameters for
the Nochilla distribution function are estimated based on the results obtained on the scattering of the
molecular flow and on the force impact of this flow on different samples.
SPHERICAL PROBE IN STEADY-STATE PLASMA IN A MAGNETIC FIELD: THE CASE OF A THICK SPACE-CHARGE LAYER
949-955
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013558
Alexey Vasil’evich
Kashevarov
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhykovsky Str., Zhukovsky,
Moscow Region, 140180, Russian Federation
electric probe
magnetized plasma
In the present study, the current-voltage characteristics are calculated for a spherical probe placed in
steady-state slightly ionized plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. The consideration is restricted
to the case of an extra-thick space-charge layer. It is shown that the magnetic field prevents the charged
particles from penetrating the probe, such that the current in the probe is significantly reduced. The
lines of equally charged particle concentrations around the probe and the current density distributions
along the spherical surface are presented.
COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF FLOW PARAMETERS IN THE REGION OF THE TAIL ROTOR LOCATION AT LOW SPEEDS OF SLIDING FLIGHT
957-975
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013619
Valentina Michailovna
Scheglova
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) 1, Zhukovsky str., Zhukovsky, 140180, Moscow region, Russia
induced velocity
helicopter
main rotor
tail rotor
blade
vortex wake
The present paper considers the calculation method of vortex wakes and instantaneous induced velocities
for main and tail rotors in disk planes for each rotor, taking into account their mutual influence.
The study is based on the nonlinear vortex theory, without diffusion of vortex wakes, but taking into
account the vortex finite thickness. The wake shape behind the tail rotor, the instantaneous induced
velocities of the main and tail rotor disks, and the tail rotor aerodynamic characteristics in flight mode
μ; = 0.0917 (V = 20 m/s) with sliding angles −90° ≤ β ≤ 90° are defined and are shown in the
form of plots.
ROBUST CONTROL DESIGN TO SUPPRESS WING ROCK MOTION OF A WIND-TUNNEL AIRCRAFT MODEL IN 3DOF GIMBALS
977-992
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013555
Maria Evguenievna
Sidoryuk
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky St., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
high angles of attack
robust control
linear parameter varying
(LPV) design
The dynamics of a scaled actively controlled model of a maneuverable aircraft in three degrees of
freedom (3DOF) gimbals is considered. A robust control algorithm suppressing wing rock motion
at high angles of attack is proposed. The robust control design is based on linear parameter varying
design methods, which are an extension of H∞ optimization on linear parameter-dependent systems.
Wing rock suppression with the designed control law is validated using nonlinear time-domain simulations.
MEASUREMENTS OF DEFORMATION OF THE ADAPTIVE WING LEADING EDGE IN A WIND TUNNEL BY THE VIDEOGRAMMETRY METHOD
993-1006
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.2015013557
Vladimir Petrovich
Kulesh
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), 1 Zhukovsky Str., Zhukovsky, 140180, Russia
wind tunnel
aerodynamic model
aeroelasticity
geometric parameters
deformation
noncontact measurements
videogrammetry
Investigations of the elastic deformations of a smart adaptive leading edge of a wing were carried out. This research was done in the T-101 wind tunnel of TsAGI as a part of the SADE International Project of the 7th Framework Program of European Union. A two-channel videogrammetry system intended for simultaneous noncontact measurements of deformations of the upper and lower surfaces of a large-scale aerodynamic model has been designed. A scheme with two digital cameras positioned
on the model and with data transmission by Ethernet is tested in this system. A dynamic algorithm
of the model coordinate system affixment is offered for each run, which eliminates the possibility of
any effects from camera displacement due to total model deformation. The tests of the measurement system allowed the measurement error to be evaluated using two coordinates with a value of 0.2 mm. It is shown that maximum deformation is observed for the model with a non-deflected leading-edge flap at an angle of attack of 22° and air speed of 50 m/s. In this case the maximal value of the lower surface vertical deflections near the leading edge was 5 mm.
INDEX VOLUME 45
1007-1013
10.1615/TsAGISciJ.v45.i8.190