Begell House Inc.
Journal of Automation and Information Sciences
JAI(S)
1064-2315
33
5-8
2001
THE CONQUEST OF INTERPLANETARY SPACEProf. V.P.Vetchinkin, the editor
52
Yu. V.
Kondratyuk
Editor's Preface
The suggested book by YU.V. KONDRATYUK presents undoubtedly the most complete analysis of interplanetary flights among all other recent Russian and foreign publications. All investigations have been performed by the author on his own on the basis of the only information received by him, namely that it is possible to fly with a rocket not only beyond the atmosphere, but also beyond the terrestrial gravity. The book discusses exhaustively all the subjects touched on also in other publications, and furthermore, it resolves a number of new problems of the major importance that have not been mentioned by other authors. The latter covers the following issues.
The suggestion on using combustion of various substances in ozone instead of oxygen that increases the heat of combustion.
The suggestion on using a solid fuel (lithium, boron, aluminium, magnesium, and silicon) in addition to a gaseous fuel for both increasing the heat of combustion and utilization of fuel tanks by burning them in a furnace after they get emptied. The same was suggested by engineer F.A. Tsandler at the seminar of the theoretical section of the Moscow Astronomy Club in December, 1923. However, this suggestion appeared earlier in the draft paper by Yu.V. Kondratyuk than in Tsander's report.
He first provided a formula accounting the influence of weights of fuel and oxygen tanks (the proportional passive according to the author's terminology) on a total weight of rocket. He proved also that a rocket cannot overcome the terrestrial gravity without either dropping or burning its tanks.
He also suggested to construct a rocket with wings to make it flying in the air same way as an airplane does. One can find no ideas of this kind in the foreign publications — they suggest instead to use parachutes for landing; in the Russian papers, this was suggested by F.A.Tsandler at the mentioned seminar and published later by K.E. Tsiolkovky, however later than it had appeared in the draft paper by the author. The investigation by Yu.V. Kondratyuk yet extends further the issue — he points not only to the need of using wings, but also presents a rather complete analysis: what are the particular accelerations, which wings are useful with, and what are the inclinations with respect to horizon therewith; also he calculates the most advantageous reactive force of a rocket flying in the air: it appears to be of the same order as a starting weight of rocket.
In general, a rocket take-off dynamics presents the most difficult part of the issue. Yu.V. Kondratyuk resolved it most comprehensively comparing to all other authors. The paper presents also analysis of air-heating for the front part of a rocket accounting both adiabatic air compression and radiation by the rocket surface and a heated air itself. This has not been analyzed by anyone before.
Therewith, all figures are given by Yu.V. Kondratyuk although roughly (he makes himself a remark on this in the preface), but always with a deviation from the true values in unfavorable direction for a designer.
Even such problem as construction of a space base in between the Earth and other planets with the needed rocket and artillery supplement — the problem that otherwise savors of a poet fantasy, Yu.V. Kondratyuk considers quite thoroughly, with a good foresight of technical and orientation aspects. This space base is seen by the author as a satellite of the Moon (not of the Earth as other authors suggest) that provides a better warranty from stall and falling on the Earth because of long-term satellite deceleration by the remains, although insignificant, of the atmosphere.
The last section, which is devoted to a preparatory work for performing interplanetary flights, looks also well thought-out.
The book is written in a quite distinctive style, specific notations, and it is so concise that one can read it without difficulties only trusting the author's conclusions and assuming that there are no errata. Being interested in the results only, the author omitted almost all intermediate calculations and presented the final expressions, which are often non-trivial and demand sometimes big intellectual efforts and clear understanding of mechanical essence of the analyzed problems.
Several formulae are given in the paper with editor remarks to simplify understanding and make the results more precise. However, no essential corrections were made, since the original solutions are basically correct, and there is no need of increasing the accuracy to the extent of a hundredth, while the tenth is unclear.
Taking into account that Yu.V. Kondratyuk did not receive university education, nevertheless managed to perform the investigations independently, it is amazing to realize how talented and open-minded are Russian self-educated engineers.
This book will be serving as a desk book for everyone interested in rocket flights.
Prof. V. Vetchinkin Moscow, December 4, 1927.
Minimal Invariant Sets of Discrete Dynamic Systems with a Stable Linear Part
9
Boris N.
Pshenitchnyi
V.M.Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
Vsevolod M.
Kuntsevich
Institute of Space Research of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and State Space Agency of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
The paper concerns analysis of asymptotic properties of the two classes of discrete systems with a stable linear part: i) non-autonomous linear systems under bounded set-estimated disturbances and ii) autonomous nonlinear systems with bounded nonlinear part, particularly, relay systems. For these two classes, the problem of calculating their invariant sets, the dissipativity problem, has been solved. For relay systems, all regular trajectories, which are inside their invariant sets, have been proven to approach the stable limit cycles. It has been proven also that a minimal invariant set may contain a number of stationary sets, stable stationary points and stable limit cycles in particular.
Bilinear Markov Processes of Searching for Moving Targets
13
Arkadiy A.
Chikriy
V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
Karen G.
Dzyubenko
Candidate in physics and mathematics, researcher of V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; and University of Toronto, Canada
A bilinear Markov model is considered with the aim of solving the game problems of discrete-time search for moving targets with a finite set of states. The necessary optimality conditions for various scenarios are given.
On Some Optimization Problems of Long-Term Manned Space Flights
10
Boris N.
Kiforenko
S.P. Timoshenko Istitute of Mechanics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
Igor Yu.
Vasil'ev
Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, Ukraine
The paper concerns optimization of the spacecraft design parameters, trajectory, motion control and functioning of the Life Support System (LSS) in view of execution of a long-term manned space flight. We analyzed these optimization problems all together in the frame of solving a combined variational problem. This provided a possibility of investigating the interaction of the main parameters of a piloted spacecraft considered as a complex control system and also led to finding another (non-standard) method for decrease of the rocket charge consumption that consequently reduces the efficiency requirements on the regenerative LSS. This makes the execution of the Mars Manned Mission possible in principle before the development of a highly efficient biological regenerative LSS
Conceptual Foundations of the System Analysis of Risks in Dynamics of Control of Complex System Safety. Part II. The General Problem of the System Analysis of Risks and the Strategy of its Solving
14
Boris I.
Kurilin
Central Research Institute of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
We suggested the strategy of control of safety for complex technical systems on the basis of the system analysis, multiple-factor estimation, multi-objective minimization of risks for abnormal mode, which provides considerable increase of their safety by timely detection of essential, critical and/or catastrophic risk and avoidance of their consequences.
Decentralized and Coordinating Control of an Economic System with Interval Uncertainty
10
Vladimir N.
Shashikhin
St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg, Russia
We consider the synthesis method for bimodal suboptimal control of an economic system. Parameters of the system are given accurate to belonging to closed multivalence. The suggested scheme of control provides the optimal development of subsystems and the stability of the whole interconnected system under parametric excitations. The developed interval models and methods of control make it possible to analyze different variants of capital investment and to evaluate the efficiency of investment policy.
Boolean Averaging and the Phenomenon of Uniform 2-Coloring in Control Systems and Statistical Mechanics
8
Mikhail M.
Kipnis
Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University, Russia
We describe the phenomenon of uniform 2-coloring in three models: 1) pulse-duration; 2) analog-digital converters with sigma-delta modulation; 3) one model of statistical mechanics with the Hubbard Hamiltonian. These systems have phenomenological connections. Besides, these systems are described by means of the Boolean averaging system introduced by the author.
Investigation of an Algorithm for Sequential Analysis of Variants of Leontieff-Ford Model with a Sparse Matrix of Normative Coefficients
5
Alexey F.
Voloshin
Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Natalya B.
Chornei
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Kyiv, Ukraine
On the basis of numerical experiments consideration is given to the features of the method of sequential analyzing the variants for solution of Leontieff-Ford balance model of economy and environment interaction in case of matrices of normative coefficients being sparse.
Necessary Conditions of Optimality in Goursat-Darboux Problem with Generalized Controls
9
Leila Kyazim kyzy.
Hasanova
M. Rasulzade Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Kyazim Kara ogly.
Hasanov
Institute of Applied Mathematics of M. Rasulzade Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Necessary conditions of optimality in the processes described by Goursat-Darboux problem with generalized controls are derived.
Bifurcations and Catastrophes of Stationary States of Inverted Double-Link Mathematical Pendulum under Variation of Control Parameters
12
Lada L.
Lobas
Boston College, USA; and Karlov University, Prague, Czechia
A mathematical model is constructed and a method for determining stationary states of pendulum is described. These states continuously depend on one scalar parameter. It is demonstrated that asymmetry of the follower force causes bifurcations of stationary states and the fold and cusp catastrophes.
The Properties of Controlled Systems with Multivalence Described by Operator of Hammershtain Type
9
Maya S.
Beradzei
Kutaisi Technical University, Georgia
Miranda R.
Mnatsakaniani
Kutaisi Technical University, Georgia
The investigation of dynamics of controlled systems with multivalence is presented. This is described by an equation of Hammershtain type in Banach space. Such a statement arose at continual analog of neural networks models which are considered in the works of A.S. Makarenko.
Will the "Doomsday" of Cybernetics Come?
1
Does the Science of Cybernetics Exist? (About the Role of Cybernetics in Natural Science)
17
Nikolay N.
Diduk
V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Valeriy N.
Koval
V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
The crisis of foundation which cybernetics is suffering now, is discussed. We draw a parallel between the traditional approach to explanation of Nature phenomena and the cybernetic approach. It is concluded that the cybernetic approach significantly differs from the physical approach and it is irreplaceable in this character as far as it is bringing us an alternative way of studying Nature. Since cybernetics up to now has not been regarded as a basic natural science (an alternative to physics) an essential flaw has been discovered in the system of sciences that exists now (a natural science guided by the cybernetic approach is missing). In the authors' opinion a renewed cybernetics can fill the gap.
Synthesis of Standard Variable Structure Systems with Time Delay
9
Elbrus Makhmud ogly
Jafarov
Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
We consider variable structure systems (VSS) in presence of a time delay in phase variables. The parametric conditions of existence of sliding modes for linear switching function in VSS with standard control laws are adduced. Ample functional potentials of standard control laws are shown in contrast to nonstandard laws of control, which are connected with application of complex and sticky automata of switching functional on terminal elements. It is possible to overcome difficulties arising due to the effect of delay on analysis of the system stability by means of proper choice of the Lyapunov-Krasovski V-functional as "full quadratic form of variables plus integral from the delay term squared".
The Generalized Fuzzy Critical Path Method: Analysis, Synthesis, Experiments
8
Anatoliy I.
Sleptsov
Donetsk Institute of Economics and Economic Law, Ukraine
Tatyana A.
Tyshchuk
Donetsk State University, Ukraine
We choose and analyze two approaches for simulation of the fuzzy sets of critical paths and works which are called the methods of path and reserve criticalities. Having in view the increase of effectiveness of the fuzzy critical path method (FCPM), we propose to combine existing approaches in the form of generalized FCPM. Using example, we demonstrate necessity of synthesis and advantages of generalized FCPM which is based on aggregation of the indexes of path and reserve criticalities.
On Solving of the Stressed State Control Problems of an Elastic Medium with a Cavity
10
Vladimir Antonovich
Stoyan
Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Yakov V.
Krysak
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Kyiv, Ukraine
We investigate the field of elastic displacements of an elastic object of limited sizes with a cavity which is in elastic state. We solve the problem of finding the set of boundary conditions and weight forces which actions result in the desired elastic state. If the exact solution is impossible, we find the error of obtaining of such state.
Analytical Design of Discrete Controlled Systems by Incomplete Data
13
Gennadiy M.
Bakan
Training and Complex "Institute of Applied System Analysis" Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine at National Technical University of Ukraine"Kiev Polytechnical Institute",Kiev
We formulate and solve the problem of analytical design of the stabilizing discrete system subjected to the restrictions that a state vector is inaccessible for the immediate use as a signal of the feedback.
Finite-Difference Strong Numerical Methods of Order 1.5 and 2.0 for Stochastic Differential Ito Equations with Nonadditive Multidimensional Noise
13
Dmitriy F.
Kuznetsov
St. Peterburg State Technical University, Russia
The paper is devoted to construction of strong numerical methods of the Runge-Kutta type of order 1.5 and 2.0 for Ito stochastic differential equations. Explicit and implicit one-step and implicit two-step strong numerical schemes are presented.
Recognition of Neurons Impulses with the Use of Nonlinear Dynamic Equations
10
Tatyana I.
Aksenova
Zhozef Fourier University, Grenoble, France
Igor V.
Tetko
Institute of Physiology of Lausanne University, Switzerland
Olga K.
Chibirova
Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France
Alexandro
Villa
Institute of Physiology of Lausanne University, Switzerland
We consider the problem of neurons impulses extracellular monitoring as a recognition problem of some specific segments of a signal — the impulses of one of neurons which appear at random time moments. For individual recognition the impulses of different neurons we use the impulses models as non-linear differential equations with a disturbance. These models enable to describe a signal disturbance not only by an amplitude but also by a phase. We have shown that the use of such models enables to reduce the problem to separation of a mixture of distributions close to normal in the transformed space of signs. We suggest and realize the algorithm of recognition of neurons impulses. The results of numerical experiment are cited.
Aggregated Optimization Model of Ecological and Economic Interaction
10
Marina V.
Korobova
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Two models of ecology and economics interaction with different types of renewable specific resources, an invariable and an exponentially decreasing ones, are considered. Stability of the stationary point is studied for the first model. Also, the optimal control problem is constructed and investigated using the Pontryagin maximum principle. The corresponding problem for the second model is studied using the sufficient optimality conditions in the Krotov sense. It is demonstrated that the main line tends to a constant vector.
Natural Language as a Virtual Medium for Human-Machine Interface
8
Lyudmila L.
Merlyan
International Research and Training Center of Information Technologies and Systems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
The paper deals with the threefold aspect of the problem of a human-machine interface: representation in the central nervous system of the structural organization of a natural language (NL), determination of the criterion of NL units classification depending on the psychophysiological parameters of man's organism, application of the laws of functioning of the first signal system in the dynamic organization of phonemes database — threephones of the Ukrainian language. We put an emphasis on investigation of man's brain.
Bayesian Procedure as the Optimal Procedure for Recognition and Transformation of Data
8
Bayesian pattern recognition procedure has been proven suboptimal for the case of independent features and distribution of a Markov chain. The error estimation of the recognition procedure is obtained dependently on the number of attributes and on the size of a learning sample.
Evasion Problem for the Unit Disk
5
Numan Yu.
Satimov
Tashkent State University, Uzbekistan
Gulamzhon M.
Muminov
Tashkent State University, Uzbekistan
The paper concerns the evasion problem for the unit disk as the objects dynamics is described by complex differential equations.
Variational-Minimax Principle for Estimation of Goniometrical Systems under Expected Uncertainty Conditions
10
Yuriy G.
Bulychev
Rostov Military Institute of Rocket Forces, Rostov-on-Don
Igor V.
Burlai
Rostov Military Institute of Rocket Forces
Anatoliy P.
Manin
Rostov Military Institute of Rocket Forces, Russia
Yaroslav V.
Kritskiy
Rostov Military Institute of Rocket Forces, Russia
Within the frame of the optimal minimax statement the combined (two-stage) method for estimating object location is developed. This method is based on goniometrical system, which consists of several meters. On the first stage in the nonlinear version we solved the problem of finding initial (crude) estimate as well as its correlation matrix. The obtained data is used for the second stage in a linear filter for construction of the desired (improved) estimate.
Mathematical Modeling of Estimates of Population Mortality Background Risk in Ukraine
3
Anna A.
Khmil
National Institute of Strategic Research, Kyiv, Ukraine
Anatoliy B.
Kachinskiy
National Institute of Strategic Research, Kyiv
Quantitative estimations of endogen and exogen risks of mortality for separate age groups are determined with the help of the modified Compertz-Maqeman model. They allow us to establish a ratio of influence of the internal (biological) and external adverse factors on safety of population vital activity, current trends of background risks of mortality of the Ukrainian population being investigated.
Eigenvalues of a Shrodinger Equation with a Singular Potential
8
Boris N.
Lyashenko
Ivan Franko Zhitomir Pedagogical University, Ukraine
For the solution of singular eigenvalue problems it is offered to apply a method of truncating the domain of definition of the differential problem forming boundary conditions in the form of the logarithmic derivative of the solutions of the corresponding boundary value problem at the points of truncation. By using under obtained boundary conditions asymptotic expansions of a solution of a boundary value problem, the problem about eigenvalues of a Shrodinger equation with an optical potential is solved.
Investigation and Implementation of the Algorithm for Adaptive Control of Experiment
11
Valeriy P.
Zinchenko
National Technical University of Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnical Institute", Ukraine
We suggest the algorithm for the adaptive control of experimental investigations in wind tunnels on studying distribution of the pressure on a surface of an aircraft model. The algorithm is constructed on the basis of mathematical models, which are based on investigation of time of pressure recovery in pneumatic elements of a system in a range of the pressure on investigating models of aircraft in industrial wind tunnels for small and transonic speeds.
Application of the Correlation-Regression Analysis on Planning Production in Space Industry
9
Vladimir B.
Labenskiy
National Space Agency of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Examples of application of the correlation-regression analysis for fixing of the market prices for launch vehicles, analysis of laboriousness and overhead expenses of enterprises.
Comparative Analysis of Methods for Prediction of Economic Parameter
9
Olga V.
Dudnik
Research and Training Complex "Institute of Applied Systems Analysis" of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Some modern directions of the statistical analysis and prediction of dynamic series are described. On examples of two real dynamic series, namely, for the Ukrainian hrivna rate relative to the US dollar and the Russian rouble for the second half of 1997, the operation of such prediction methods as the Brown method, the method of exponential smoothing with application of the Laguerre orthogonal polynomials, the adaptive Kalman filter is investigated. The regression model of a process was also constructed for these series, which is later tested for heteroscedasticity. The results of application of the noted above methods and comparison of their potentials are presented.
The Regularized Recurrent Least-Squares Algorithm with the Changing Regularization Parameter
18
Nataliya V.
Panova
Institute of Space Research of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and National Space Agency of Ukraine, Ukraine
The regularized recurrent least-squares algorithm with the regularization parameter depending on data is developed. Its properties connected with the selection of initial values are studied and also the possible ways of its effective utilization are considered. On the basis of the approach proposed the regularized recurrent least-squares algorithm with an average and weighted regularized recurrent least-squares algorithm are constructed, their properties being investigated.