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International Heat Transfer Conference 13

ISBN Imprimer: 1-56700-226-9 (CD)
ISBN En ligne: 1-56700-225-0


DOI: 10.1615/IHTC13.p30.250
page 10

Raphael Semiat
Rabin Desalination Laboratory, Grand Water Research Institute Wolfson Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Technion − Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa, Israel


The world is facing drought. Many countries are suffering from lack of water or polluted water. Desalination techniques can convert seawater, brackish or polluted water into drinkable water. Solutions based on evaporation techniques and membrane processes can be applied, yet the cost is still high for farmers who live on simple agriculture. Proximity to the ocean facilitates seawater desalination. Desalination of brackish water and the treatment of sewage water and industrial wastewater is the key for solving environmental problems while helping to resolve the water shortage situation. More R&D is needed in order to further reduce the cost of reproducing water in order to enable easy usage. Two main desalination techniques survived the long evolution process: reverse osmosis and evaporation. Competition and similarities exist between the different processes: product cost and penetration into the market, problems associated with concentration polarization, techniques used to improve the transfer mechanisms, and finally, directions for future research and development. This paper will enlighten some of the similarities and differences.

IHTC-13 Digital Library

Measurement of fluid temperature with an arrangement of three thermocouples FLOW BOILING OF A HIGHLY VISCOUS POLYMER SOLUTION