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Giulio Croce
DiEM - Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy

Paola D'Agaro
DiEM - Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy

Francesca Della Mora
DiEM - Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy


A numerical procedure for the prediction of fogging and defogging phenomena is presented. The simulation involves the solution of an air flow field along a cold solid surface, the evaluation of the unsteady conduction through the solid itself, and a model for the heat and mass transfer within the thin water layer on the fogged surface. A suite of routines for the unsteady simulation of the water layer evolution is coupled with an equal order finite element Navier Stokes solver and a finite volume conduction code. The procedure is fully independent of the numerical details of the solid and fluid domain solvers. Two different coupling approaches may be followed: a loose one, where the Navier Stokes solution is used only for a steady state estimate of the heat transfer coefficient, or a close one, where the Navier Stokes, conduction and water layer codes are iterated simultaneously. The latter is required for the problem of natural convection, where temperature (and thus the energy balance of the water layer) and flow field are coupled. The water layer is modeled as a collection of closely packed tiny droplets, leaving a portion of dry area among them. The effect of the contact angle is taken into account, and physical assumptions allow to define the local ratio between wet and dry surface for both the fogging and defogging process. As a case study, a comparison with experimental data for a complete fogging and defogging cycle of a glass lens in natural convection is presented.

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