Abonnement à la biblothèque: Guest
Portail numérique Bibliothèque numérique eBooks Revues Références et comptes rendus Collections
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Facteur d'impact: 1.423 Facteur d'impact sur 5 ans: 1.525 SJR: 0.431 SNIP: 0.716 CiteScore™: 2.6

ISSN Imprimer: 1521-9437
ISSN En ligne: 1940-4344

Volume 22, 2020 Volume 21, 2019 Volume 20, 2018 Volume 19, 2017 Volume 18, 2016 Volume 17, 2015 Volume 16, 2014 Volume 15, 2013 Volume 14, 2012 Volume 13, 2011 Volume 12, 2010 Volume 11, 2009 Volume 10, 2008 Volume 9, 2007 Volume 8, 2006 Volume 7, 2005 Volume 6, 2004 Volume 5, 2003 Volume 4, 2002 Volume 3, 2001 Volume 2, 2000 Volume 1, 1999

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020034230
pages 335-346

Tropical Milky White Mushroom, Calocybe indica (Agaricomycetes): An Effective Antimicrobial Agent Working in Synergism with Standard Antibiotics

Suhana Datta
P.G. Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier’s College, 30, Park Street, Kolkata-700016, West Bengal, India
Jyoti Dubey
P.G. Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier’s College, 30, Park Street, Kolkata-700016, West Bengal, India
Shweta Gupta
P.G. Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier’s College, 30, Park Street, Kolkata-700016, West Bengal, India
Ayoshi Paul
P.G. Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier’s College, 30, Park Street, Kolkata-700016, West Bengal, India
Payel Gupta
P.G. Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier's College, 30, Park Street, Kolkata-700016, West Bengal, India
Arup Kumar Mitra
P.G. Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier's College, 30, Park Street, Kolkata-700016, West Bengal, India


Synergistic effect of mushroom extracts with standard antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria is beneficial for treating infectious diseases. The present investigation tested the antibacterial activity and synergistic effect from an edible mushroom, Calocybe indica, with standard antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different extracts from C. indica was checked against pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis using the broth dilution and agar well diffusion method. The agar disc diffusion method, checkerboard study, and growth curve analysis were used to test synergism. The preliminary mechanism of action regarding cellular morphology, membrane permeability, and damage to protein and DNA were evaluated. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found in the methanolic crude extract (MCE) from C. indica, with a MIC value ranging from 5 to 10 mg/mL. It showed a significant increase in the efficiency of ciprofloxacin (CIP) acting synergistically. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of MCE was significant for E. coli and S. aureus with values of 0.46 and 0.45 respectively. Results showed an increase in the loss of cell viability, damage to cell membrane permeability, and damage to bacterial protein and DNA as the probable synergistic mechanism of action for the MCE and the antibiotic. HR-LCMS analysis of the MCE showed the presence of phenolic acid, terpenoids, fatty acid ester, and carboxylic acid, which, in combination, increased the bacterial susceptibility. The present study is significant because it considered the methanolic crude extract from C. indica as complementary medicine for infectious diseases.


  1. Gupta P, Birdi T. Development of botanicals to combat antibiotic resistance. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2017;8(4):266-75.

  2. Baker JH, Qiu J, Grine K. Role of complementary and alternative therapies in infectious disease. Prim Care. 2018;45(3):533-39.

  3. Baars EW, Zoen EB, Breitkreuz T, Martin D, Matthes H, Schoen-Angerer T, Soldner G, Vagedes J, Wietmarschen HV, Patijn O, Willcox M, von Flotow P, Teut M, von Ammon K, Thangavelu M, Wolf U, Hummelsberger J, Nicolai T, Hartemann P, Szoke H, McIntyre M, van der Werf ET, Huber R. The contribution of complementary and alternative medicine to reduce antibiotic use: A narrative review of health concepts, prevention, and treatment strategies. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:536560.

  4. Khan F, Chandra R. Bioprospecting of wild mushrooms from India with respect to their medicinal aspects. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2019;21(2):181-92.

  5. Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms. Current perspectives (Review). Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:31-62.

  6. Quinones Munoz TA, Navarrete NS, Acosta DFC, Gurrola EEC, Carbajal GRH, Santos EDCV. The effect of growth substrate and extraction solvent on biological activities of oyster culinary medicinal mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018;20(8):739-48.

  7. Mishra J, Rajput R, Singh K, Bansal A, Misra K. Overview of the biological activities of a methanol extract from wild red belt conk, Fomitopsis pinicola (Agaricomycetes), fruiting bodies from Central Italy. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018;20(10):989-1001.

  8. Giri S, Biswas G, Pradhan P, Mandal SC, Acharya K. Antimicrobial activities of basidiocarps of wild edible mushrooms of West Bengal, India. Int J PharmTech Res. 2012;4(4):1554-60.

  9. Alves MJ, Ferreira IC, Dias J, Teixeira V, Martins A, Pintado M. A review on antimicrobial activity of mushroom (Basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds. Planta Med. 2012;78(16):1707-18.

  10. Skariyachan S, Prasanna A, Manjunath SP, Karanth SS, Nazre A. Exploring the medicinal potential of the fruit bodies of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes), against multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;18(3):245-52.

  11. Kosanic M, Rankovic B, Dasic M. Mushrooms as possible antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Iran J Pharm Res. 2012;11(4):1095-102.

  12. Mishra KK, Pal RS, Arunkumar R. Antioxidant activities and bioactive compound determination from caps and stipes of specialty medicinal mushrooms Calocybe indica and Pleurotus sajor-caju (higher Basidiomycetes) from India. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2014;16(6):555-67.

  13. Islam T, Ganesan K, Xu B. New insight into mycochemical profiles and antioxidant potential of edible and medicinal mushrooms: A review. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2019;21(3):237-51.

  14. Lo HC, Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus: History, current status, future perspectives, and unsolved problems (review). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2011;13(5):401.

  15. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms in human clinical studies. Part I. Anticancer, oncoimmunological, and immunomodulatory activities: A review. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(4):279-317.

  16. Elbatrawy EN, Ghonimy EA, Alassar MM, Wu FS. Medicinal mushroom extracts possess differential antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(5):471.

  17. Miranda AM, Ribeiro GM, Cunha AC, Silva LS, dos Santos RC, Pedrosa ML, Silva ME. Hypolipidemic effect of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei in rats subjected to hypercholesterolemic diet. J Physiol Biochem. 2014;70(1):215-24.

  18. Krishnamoorthy AS, Balan V. A comprehensive review of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C). Mycobiology. 2015;43(3):184-94.

  19. Purkayastha RP, Chandra AA. New technique for in vitro production of Calocybe indica an edible mushroom from India. Mushroom J. 1976;40:112-3.

  20. Iqbal J, Siddiqui R, Kazmi SU, Khan NA. A simple assay to screen antimicrobial compounds potentiating the activity of current antibiotics. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(7):8915-32.

  21. Cheypratub P, Leeanansaksiri W, Eumkeb G. The synergy and mode of action of Cyperus rotundus L. extract plus ampicillin against ampicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018;2018:3438453.

  22. Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver CN, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz AG, Shalfier S, Stadtman ER. Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol. 1990;186:464-78.

  23. Helander IM, Mattila-Sandholm T. Fluorometric assessment of Gram-negative bacterial permeabilization. J Appl Microbiol. 2000;88(2):213-9.

  24. Halder S, Yadav KK, Sarkar R, Mukherjee S, Saha P, Haldar S, Karmakar S, Sen T. Alteration of zeta potential and membrane permeability in bacteria: A study with cationic agents. SpringerPlus. 2015;4:672.

  25. Bagchi B, Banerjee S, Kool A, Thakur P, Bhandary S, Hoque NA, Das S. Synthesis of eucalyptus/tea tree oil absorbed biphasic calcium phosphate-PVDF polymer nanocomposite films: A surface active antimicrobial system for biomedical application. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18:16775-85.

  26. Shankar S, Anand R, Ramesh K. Antibacterial activity of diethyl ether extract of Calocybe indica. Asian J Chem. 2009;21(1):802-80.

  27. Liktor-Busa E, Kovacs B, Urban E, Hohmann J, Vanyolos A. Investigation of Hungarian mushrooms for antibacterial activity and synergistic effects with standard antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains. Ann Lab Med. 2016;36(2): 111-6.

  28. Vazirian M, Faramarzi MA, Ebrahimi SE, Esfahani HR, Samadi N, Hosseini SA, Asghari A, Manayi A, Habibi E, Amanzadeh Y. Antimicrobial effect of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) and its main compounds. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2014;16(1):77-84.

  29. Hassan F, Ni S, Becker TL, Kinstedt CM, Abdul-Samad JL, Actis LA, Kennedy MA. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of 75 mushrooms collected in the vicinity of Oxford, Ohio (USA). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2019;21(2):131-41.

  30. Alves MJ, Ferreira IC, Lourenjo I, Castro A, Pereira L, Martins A, Pintado M. Wild mushroom extracts potentiate the action of standard antibiotics against multiresistant bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2014;116(1):32-8.

  31. Nowacka N, Nowak R, Drozd M, Olech M, Los R, Malm A. Antibacterial, antiradical potential and phenolic compounds of thirty one Polish mushrooms. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0140355.

  32. Sirikhwan T. Antimicrobial activities and synergistic effects of the combination of some edible mushroom extracts with antibiotics against pathogenic strains. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2015;35(2):253-62.

  33. Appiah T, Boakye YD, Agyare C. Antimicrobial activities and time-kill kinetics of extracts of selected Ghanaian mushrooms. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:4534350.

  34. Karwa AS, Rai MK. Naturally occurring medicinal mushroom-derived antimicrobials: A case-study using lingzhi or reishi Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(12):1083-92.

  35. Gaur T, Rao PB. Analysis of antibacterial activity and bioactive compounds of the giant mushroom, Macrocybe gigantea (Agaricomycetes), from India. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(3):243-48.

  36. Goswami M, Mangoli SH, Jawali N. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the action of ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(3):949-54.

  37. Masadeh MM, Alzoubi KH, Al-Azzam SI, Khabour OF, Al-Buhairan AM. Ciprofloxacin-induced antibacterial activity is attenuated by pretreatment with antioxidant agents. Pathogens. 2016;5(1):28.

  38. Khodursky AB, Cozzarelli NR. The mechanism of inhibition of topoisomerase IV by quinolone antibacterials. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27668-77.

  39. Kabara JJ, Swieczkowski DM, Conley AJ, Truant JP. Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1972;2(1):23-28.

  40. Sinanoglou VJ, Zoumpoulakis P, Heropoulos G, Proestos C, Ciric A, Petrovic J, Glamoclija J, Sokovic M. Lipid and fatty acid profile of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphurous. Antifungal and antibacterial properties. J Food Sci Technol. 2015;52(6):3264-72.

Articles with similar content:

The Health Promoting Effects of the Fruiting Bodies Extract of the Peppery Milk Cap Mushroom Lactarius piperatus (Agaricomycetes) from Serbia
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.22, 2020, issue 4
Aleksandra Marković, Tatjana P. Stanojkovic, Olivera Milosevic-Djordjevic, Darko Grujičić, Nevena Petrović, Jovana Tubic, Marijana Kosanic
Novel Kombucha Beverage from Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, with Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.20, 2018, issue 3
Danka Matijašević, Aleksandra Sknepnek, Milena Pantić, Dunja Miletić, Miomir Niksic, Steva Lević, Viktor Nedović
Novel Ganoderma lucidum-based beverage with antibacterial and antioxidant effects
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.20, 2018, issue 3
Miomir Niksic
Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential of Two Species of Genus Agaricus L: Fr. (Agaricomycetideae) from India
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.10, 2008, issue 2
Inder S. Rana, Sardul S. Sandhu, Aarti Kanojiya
Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of 75 Mushrooms Collected in the Vicinity of Oxford, Ohio (USA)
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.21, 2019, issue 2
Faizule Hassan, Luis A. Actis, Christine M. Kinstedt, Jana L. Abdul-Samad, Shuisong Ni, Taylor L. Becker, Michael A. Kennedy