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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Facteur d'impact: 1.423 Facteur d'impact sur 5 ans: 1.525 SJR: 0.431 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Imprimer: 1521-9437
ISSN En ligne: 1940-4344

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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v4.i2.50
6 pages

Antimicrobial and Antitoxical Action of Edible and Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. Extracts

Valeriy P. Gerasimenya
Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics RAN, Kosygin str. 4, Moscow 119991, Russia
Olga V. Efremenkova
Gause Institute of New Antibiotics RAMS, Bolshaya Pirogovskaya 11, Moscow 119867, Russia
Olga V. Kamzolkina
Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Department of Mycology and Algology, Moscow 119899, Russia
Tatyana A. Bogush
Russian Blokhin Cancer Research Center RAMS, Kashirskoje shosse 24, Moscow 115478, Russia
Irina V. Tolstych
Gause Institute of New Antibiotics RAMS, Bolshaya Pirogovskaya 11, Moscow 119867, Russia
Valentina A. Zenkova
Gause Institute of New Antibiotics RAMS, Bolshaya Pirogovskaya 11, Moscow 119992, Russia

RÉSUMÉ

Fourteen strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. (Agaricales s.l.) were investigated as possible producers of biologically active substances. After submerged cultivation, biologically active materials were isolated as extracts from cultural liquids and mycelia. Extracts were evaporated and dry residue dissolved. Antimicrobial activity was tested by the method of diffusion in agar medium inoculated with microorganisms. Disks saturated with solution were used. All strains manifest antimicrobial activity during submerged cultivation in experiments with extracts; cultural liquids demonstrated only minimal activity, so these strains have low levels of biosynthesis. Extracts of fruit bodies grown on corn were inactive. For the next investigation, one strain of P. ostreatus with the highest levels of biosynthesis was chosen. During submerged cultivation this strain produced two different substances with antibiotic activity, one with high activity against Aspergillus niger INA 00760 and the other with activity against Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger/i> INA 00760, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIA 259, and Candida albicans INA 00763 in mycelium extracts was not found. Mycelial extract was fractionated and it was shown that antimicrobial substance (or substances) in mycelial extract makes up not more than 1% of dry weight. Investigation of mycelial extract as anticancer and antitoxic drugs was studied in CBA mice. Anticancer action was tested in mice transplanted with Ehrlich’s ascites tumor. Toxic effect (decreasing of body weight and leucopenia) was noted in animals after cyclophosphamide (CP) administration in doses of 100 mg/kg. Extract was administrated daily. The first extract injection was given 2 h after CP administration. A number of leucocytes in peripheral blood were studied after CP treatment, producing a decrease of leucopenia level during this period. According to our data, P. ostreatus extracts produce a decrease of CP hematotoxicity.