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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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ISSN Imprimer: 1521-9437
ISSN En ligne: 1940-4344

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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017024404
pages 915-924

Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Cultivated Fruiting Bodies of Xylaria nigripes (Ascomycetes), a Chinese Medicinal Fungus

Chih-Chuang Liaw
Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Shu-Jing Wu
Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan
Ching-Fu Chen
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Ming-Nan Lai
Kang Jian Biotech Co., Ltd., Nantou, Taiwan
Lean Teik Ng
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan


Xylaria nigripes, also known as Wu Ling Shen, is popular for treating insomnia and trauma in traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity and bioactive constituents of cultivated X. nigripes fruiting bodies in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed that among the different extracts, the hexane fraction exhibited the best protection against cell toxicity induced by 1 μg/mL LPS and the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production. This fraction led to the isolation of 2 bioactive compounds (namely, XN-CP1 and XN-CP2), which were confirmed to be ergostarien-3β-ol and ergosterol peroxide, respectively. Although both XN-CP1 and XN-CP2 showed good inhibitory effects on NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages, XN-CP2 was shown to have a stronger anti-inflammatory activity; this was further supported by its strong suppressive effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. These results conclude that ergosterol peroxide (XN-CP2) could be the main bioactive compound contributing to the potent anti-inflammatory activity of X. nigripes, and its mechanism of action is mediated through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

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