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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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ISSN Imprimer: 1521-9437
ISSN En ligne: 1940-4344

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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v7.i3.450
pages 398-400

Screening Antitumor Activity of Low-Molecular-Weight Compounds Obtained from the Fruit Bodies of Family Agaricaceae Chevall. (Higher Basidiomycetes)

Marina Ya. Didukh
International Center for Cryptogamic Plants and Fungi, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel; M. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Tereshchenkovskaya Str., Kiev, 01601, Ukraine
Jamal A. Mahajna
Migal, Galilee Technology Center, Cancer Drug Discovery Program, Kiryat Shmona; Galilee Institute for Applied Research, Nazareth

RÉSUMÉ

Numerous higher Basidiomycetes are an important source of medicinal substances, applied in the treatment of a wide range of ailments. The anticancer activity of mushroom-derived components has long been known and is well documented. The majority of active substances are high-molecular-weight (HMW) (200–400,000 Da) polysaccharides and polysaccharide complexes, active hexose correlated compounds (AHCC), polysaccharide-peptides, nucleosides, triterpenoids, complex starches, and other metabolites. Of the known 918 Agaricaceae species (Kirk et al., 2001), only 37 species of eight genera were screened on HMW antitumor active compounds (Ohta et al., 1999), and three species (Agaricus langei (F.H. Moller et Jul. Schaff .) Maire, Leucoagaricus carneifolius (Gillet) S. Wasser, L. leucothites (Vittad.) M.M. Moser ex Bon), were screened for low-molecular-weight (LMW) antitumor-active substances (Yassin et al., 2003). While activity of HMW substances is attributed to the immunemodulating function, LMW substances might show a direct antitumor eff ect against cancer cells.
The current study examined the anticancer activity of extracts, obtained using different organic solvents (dichloromethane: DCHM, ethyl acetate: EtAc, and methanol: Meth). Overall, 13 species (eight Agaricus, three Macrolepiota, one Leucoagaricus, and one Lepiota) were screened. Six lines of three types of cancer were studied: prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen-dependent prostate cancer; the cell line carries mutation T877A in the androgen receptor); DU145; PC3 (both lines androgen-independent); breast cancer cell line MDA-kb2 (MDAMB-453); patient-derived chronic myelogeneous leukemia cell (CML) lines (K562); and laboratory model of CML, Baf 3/p185 Bcr-Abl. All cell lines were subjected to 36 extracts, each of which was tested in two concentrations. When setting up the experiment, attention was focused on extracts able to inhibit nonselectively all cell lines used, as well as extracts that would inhibit growth of a specific type of cancer selectively.


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