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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Facteur d'impact: 2.156 Facteur d'impact sur 5 ans: 2.255 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.599 CiteScore™: 3

ISSN Imprimer: 1045-4403
ISSN En ligne: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2020029202
pages 311-322

Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Uzma Saleem
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Shakila Sabir
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan; Department of Pharmacology, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Sammia Gul Niazi
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Directorate of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Naeem
Directorate of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Bashir Ahmad
Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore Campus, Pakistan


Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance in a redox system. It may involve either excessive production of reactive oxygen species or dysfunction of the antioxidant defense system. Unlike other viscera, the brain is especially highly susceptible to oxidative damage because of it requires a high oxygen level and contains an abundance of peroxida-tion-susceptible lipid cells. Oxidative stress is among the common etiological factors involved in neurodegeneration. To measure The extent of oxidative stress is measured with several indicators or biomarkers that are known to arise from oxidation of major biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. In this review, we will discuss oxidative stress biomarkers associated with neurodegenerative diseases, for instance, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. We will also highlight the biomarkers of antioxidant defense mechanisms that are impaired in these diseases.


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