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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Imprimer: 0278-940X
ISSN En ligne: 1943-619X

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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v30.i123.40
pages 55-84

Biomedical Signal Processing and Modeling in Cardiovascular Systems

Giuseppe Baselli
Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
Enrico Caiani
Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
Alberto Porta
Dipartimento di Scienze Precliniche, LITA di Vialba, Universita di Milano, Milano, Italy
Nicola Montana
Dipartimento di Scienze Precliniche, LITA di Vialba, Universita di Milano, Milano, Italy
Maria Gabriella Signorini
Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
Sergio Cerutti
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Polytechnic University Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32 1-20133 Milan


This article revisits the subject of short-term heart-rate and arterial-pressure variability from the perspective of model structures that can be useful in defining signal processing algorithms. We draw a general scheme of the oscillation sources and interactions that contribute to cardiovascular control mechanisms and highlight the elements that were considered in different modeling works.The origin, superposition, and interaction of respiratory high-frequency (HF) and vasomotor low-frequency (LF) rhythms is presented as the integration of supraspinal and spinal circuits, vasomotor activity, and pressure control loops. We analyze in detail the necessity of considering all relevant interactions for the algorithms designed to estimate the baroreflex sensitivity. We also pinpoint the components of cardiorespiratory coupling in relation to the analysis of data from the acoustic quantification of the left ventricular volume. Finally, we analyze the tendency to produce complex behaviors even in extremely simplified systems involving interactions between oscillatory mechanisms.

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