Abonnement à la biblothèque: Guest
Portail numérique Bibliothèque numérique eBooks Revues Références et comptes rendus Collections
Hydrobiological Journal
SJR: 0.227 SNIP: 0.901 CiteScore™: 0.5

ISSN Imprimer: 0018-8166
ISSN En ligne: 1943-5991

Volumes:
Volume 56, 2020 Volume 55, 2019 Volume 54, 2018 Volume 53, 2017 Volume 52, 2016 Volume 51, 2015 Volume 50, 2014 Volume 49, 2013 Volume 48, 2012 Volume 47, 2011 Volume 46, 2010 Volume 45, 2009 Volume 44, 2008 Volume 43, 2007 Volume 42, 2006 Volume 41, 2005 Volume 40, 2004 Volume 39, 2003 Volume 38, 2002 Volume 37, 2001 Volume 36, 2000 Volume 35, 1999 Volume 34, 1998

Hydrobiological Journal

DOI: 10.1615/HydrobJ.v56.i2.10
pages 3-16

Toxicological Aspects of the Surface Water "Blooms" (a Review)

N. I. Kirpenko
Institute of Hydrobiology, NAS of Ukraine, 12 Geroev Stalingrada Ave., Kiev 03254, Ukraine
Yu. G. Krot
Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
O. M. Usenko
Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

RÉSUMÉ

The paper deals with the blue-green algae species - the water «blooms» agents, which are able to synthesize highly toxic substances. The basic algotoxins and mechanisms of their impact on living organisms are characterized. Methods for determining algotoxins and quantitative limits of their presence in water bodies are discussed, as well as factors that influence the Cyanophyta toxicity. Special attention was paid to the potential hazard of algotoxins to human organism.

RÉFÉRENCES

  1. Belykh, O.I., Ye.G. Sorokovikova, O.V. Kaliuzhnaya et al. 2010. Species composition of the planktonic cyanobacteria of the Kotokel Lake (Buryatia) over toxic "bloom" in 2009. Pp. 22 in: Sovremenniye problemy gidroekologii: Tezisy dokl. IV Mezhdunar. konf. (Actual issues of hydroecology: Abstracts of IV Internat. conf.) St Petersburg. [Rus.].

  2. Beliakova, R.N. 2005. Cyanoprokaryota, causing "blooms" of the water bodies of the north-western part of Russia. Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rasteniy 39: 254-267. [Rus.].

  3. Bogdanov, N.I. 2008. Biologicheskaya reabilitatsiya vodoyomov. (Biological rehabilitation of the water bodies.) Penza, RIO Press. 126 pp. [Rus.].

  4. Voloshko, L.N., A.V. Pliushch & N.N. Titova. 2008. Toxins of cyanobacteria (Cyanobacteria, Cyanophyta). Algologiya 18(1): 3-20. [Rus.].

  5. Voloshko, L.N., A.V. Pinevich, I.I. Kopetskiy et al. 2010. Toxins, produced by cyanobacteria over the water "bloom" in the lower Suzdal Lake (St Petersburg, Russia). Ibid. 20(2): 210-223. [Rus.].

  6. Gavrilova, Ye.V. 2009. Vidovoy sostav, dinamika chislennosti i toksichnost' tsianobakteriy Shershnevskogo vodokhranilishcha Cheliabinskoy oblasti. (Species composition, numbers' dynamics and toxicity of cyanobacteria of the Shershnevsk reservoir in the Cheliabinsk region.) Author's abstract of PhD thesis. Penza. 18 pp. [Rus.].

  7. Goldin, Ye.B. 2013. Biological activity of microalgae and its significance in the inter-species relations. Ekosistemy, ikh optimizatsiya i okhrana 9: 49-76. [Rus.].

  8. Yezhova, Ye.Ye., Ye.K. Lange, Ya.V. Russkikh et al. 2012. Hazardous "blooms" of microalgae in the Curonian lagoon of the Baltic Sea in 2008-2011. Available at: http://www.park-kosa.ru/new.grad39.ru/2012.pdf. [Rus.].

  9. Carmichael, V.V. & V.M. Chernayenko. 1992. Toxins of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Uspekhi sovr. biologii 112(2): 216-224. [Rus.].

  10. Carmichael, V.V., V.M. Chernayenko & V. Evans. 1993. Cyclic peptide hepatotoxins from the freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), sampled in the "blooming" water bodies of Ukraine and European part of Russia. Dokl. ANRossii 330(5): 659-661. [Rus.].

  11. Kirpenko, Yu.A. & N.I. Kirpenko. 1985. Factors, affecting toxins forming by algae. Gidrobiol. zhurn. 21(3): 51-56. [Rus.].

  12. Klochenko, P.D. 2002. Metabolizm azotu uprisnovodnykh vodorostiakh tayogo rol u formuvanni ikh ugrupovan' i vyakosti vody. (Nitrogen metabolism in the freshwater algae and its role in forming of their communities and water quality.) Author's abstract of Dr of Science thesis. Kyiv. 38 pp. [Ukr.].

  13. Kovalchuk, L.Y., V.O. Korobchanskiy & A.V. Mokiyenko. 2015. Integral assessment of impact of water of the surface waters bodies' of the Ukrainian Danube basin on biota of different organization level. J. Educ., Health and Sport 5: 462-471. [Ukr.].

  14. Kovalchuk, L.Y., A.V. Mokiyenko & S.G. Gushcha. 2014. Impact of water of the lakes of the Ukrainian Danube basin on the functional state of some systems of the healthy rats' organism. Gigiyena naselenykh mists' 63: 78-84. [Ukr.].

  15. Kondratyeva, N.V. & O.V. Kovalenko. 1975. Kratkiy opredelitel' vidov toksicheskikh sine-zelionykh vodorosley. (Brief determinative key of the toxic blue-green algae species.) Kyiv, Naukova Dumka Press. 80 pp. [Rus.].

  16. Konovalova, N.V. & T.A. Mogilnikova. 2006. Toxic phytoplankton and biotoxins' content in tissues of scallops. Fundament. issledovaniya 9:100-103. [Rus.].

  17. Kotegov, B.G., N.P. Aksionova, V.Yu. Zakharov et al. 2013. Biologicheskiye i khimicheskiye effekty antropogennogo evtrofirovaniya Izhevskogo vodokhranilishcha. (Biological and chemical effects of the Izhevsk reservoir anthropogenic eutrophication. Izhevsk, Publ. House of Udmurt. Un-ty. 177 pp. [Rus.].

  18. Kuzmin, A.V. 2011. Microcystins identification by methods pf chromate-mass-spectrometry. VestnikIrkutsk. Un-ta 15: 368-370. [Rus.].

  19. Kureyshevich, A.V., O.I. Belykh, Ye.G. Sorokovikova et al. 2010. Presence of gene of microcystin synthesis in the blue-green algae of the different water bodies of Ukraine. Pp. 101 in: Sovremenniye problemy gidroekologii. Tez. dokl. IV mezhdunar. konf. (Actual issues of modern hydroecology. Abstracts of IV Intern. Conf.) St Petersburg. [Rus.].

  20. Lange, Ye.V. 2010. Effect of hydrometeorological factors of structure of phytoplankton of the GulfofFinlandinthe Baltic Sea. Pp. 104 in: Sovremenniye problemy gidroekologii. Tez. dokl. IV mezhdunar. konf. (Actual issues of modern hydroecology. Abstracts of IV Intern. Conf.) St Petersburg. [Rus.].

  21. Liashenko, O.A. 2001. Planktothrix agardhii development in the water bodies of the upper Volga basin. Bot. zhurn. 56(7): 61-65. [Rus.].

  22. Maliarevskaya, A.Ya., L.A. Sirenko, F.M. Karasina et al. 1986. Metodicheskiye rekomendatsii opredeleniya toksinov sinezelionykh vodorosley v vode i rybe, diagnostika otravleniya ryb vperiod intensivnogo tsveteniya vody. (Methodical recommendations on the blue-green algae's toxins determination in water and fish, diagnostics of fishes' intoxication over intensive water "bloom"). Kyiv. 42 pp. [Rus.].

  23. Nikulina, T.V. 2001. Actual state of algoflora of the Rakovskoye reservoir. Chteniya pamiati V.Ya. Levanidova 1: 76-86. [Rus.].

  24. Nikulina, T.V. & Yu.I. Gubelit. 2010. Cyanobacteria and macroalgae in ecosystem of the Neva River estuary. Pp. 135 in: Sovremenniye problemy gidroekologii. Tez. dokl. IV mezhdunar. konf. (Actual issues of modern hydroecology. Abstracts of IV Intern. Conf.) St Petersburg. [Rus.].

  25. Novosiolova, T.N. & A.A. Protasov. 2016. Finding of cyanobacteria of tropical and subtropical origin in the water technoecosystems of TPP and NPP of Ukraine. Hydrobiol. J. 52(6): 103-107.

  26. Orlov, V.Yu., A.S. Levedev & O.V. Babanazarova. 2010. Spatial and electron structure of microcystins. Khimiya ikhim. tekhnol. 53(9): 96-100. [Rus.].

  27. Patova, Ye.N. 2007. Cyanoprokaryota "bloom" of the water bodies of the east-European tundra. Teor.prikl. ekologiya 3. http://www.ecoregion.ru.

  28. Poliak, Yu.M., T.D. Shigeyeva, V.A. Kudravtseva&V.I. Sukharevich. 2014. Effect of aeration and redox potential on growth, photosynthesis and toxins forming of cyanobacteria Micro-cystis aeruginosa 973. Voda: khimiya i ekologiya 10: 60-68. [Rus.].

  29. Romanenko, V.D., M.T. Goncharova, I.N. Konovets at al. 2012. Method of complex assessment of the bottom sediments toxicity using benthic and planktonic organisms Hydrobiol. J. 48(2): 30-39.

  30. Romanenko V.D., Yu.G. Krot, T. Ya. Kyryziy et al. 2012. Pryrodni i shtuchni bioplato (fundamentalni iprykladni aspect.) (Natural and artificial bioplateau (fundamental and applied aspects.) Kyiv. 150 pp. [Ukr.].

  31. Russkikh, Ya.V., Ye.N. Chenova, L.V. Nekrasova et al. 2010. Comparison of results of cyanotoxins determination (anatoxin-a and microcystin-RR) by chromate-mass-spectrometry, obtained using the devices with the ion traps of different type. Nauchnoye priborostroyeniye 20(4): 100-107. [Rus.].

  32. Russkikh, Ya.V., Ye.N. Chenova, L.V., Ye.Yu. Voyakina et al. 2012. Cyanotoxins determination in the water matrix using the high-effective liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry of high resolution. Izv. St Petersburg gos. tekhn. in-ta 17(43): 61-66. [Rus.].

  33. Safonova, Ye.V. 2006. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic impact of cyanobacteria of the Shershnevsk reservoir. Pp. 148-151 in: Materialy I Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. (Proc. I Interna. Scientific and practical conf.) Cheliabinsk. [Rus.].

  34. Safonova, Ye.V. 2008. Assessment of different factors' impact on toxicity of cyanobacteria of the Shershnevsk reservoir. Vestnik Cheliabinsk. un-ta 4: 133-135. [Rus.].

  35. Sidelev, S.I., T.B. Golokolenova, Ye.N. Chernova & Ya.V. Russkikh. 2015. Analysis of phytoplankton of the Tsymliansk reservoir (Russia) in terms of cyanobacterial hepato- and neurotoxins. Mikroboiologiya 84(6): 732-742. [Rus.].

  36. Smirnov, V.V. & O.I. Feoktistova. 1963. On toxicity of the blue-green algae. Trudy In-ta biologii vnutr. vod 5: 10-20. [Rus.].

  37. Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). 2013.New York, Geneve. 350 pp.

  38. "Tsveteniye" vody. 1968. (Water "bloom".) Kyiv, Naukova Dumka Press. 387 pp. [Rus.].

  39. Chernova, Ye.N., Y.V. Russkinh, Ye.P. Podolskaya & Z.A. Zhakovskaya. 2016. Determination of microcystins and anatoxin-a by liquid chromate-mass spectrometry of low resolution. Nauchnoyepriborostroyeniye 26(1): 11-25. [Rus.].

  40. Aune, T. & K. Berg. 1986. Use of freshly prepared rat hepatocytes to study toxicity of blooms of the blue-green algae. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 19(3): 325-336.

  41. Berg, K. & T. Anne. 1987. Freshly prepared rat hepatocytes used in scriening the toxicity of blue-green algal blooms. Ibid. 20(1-2): 187-197.

  42. Billam, M., L. Tang, Q. Cai et al. 2006. Seasonal variations in the concentration of micro-cystin-LR in two lakes in Western Texas, USA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25(2): 349-355.

  43. Bruno, M., D.A.Barbini, E. Pierdominici et al. 1994. Anatoxin-A and a previously unknown toxin in Anabaena planctonica from blooms found in Lake Mulargia (Italy). Toxicon 32(3): 369-373.

  44. Bruno, M., P.M. Gucci, E. Pierdominici et al. 1992. Microcystin-like toxins in different fresh-water species of Oscillatoria. Ibid. 30(10): 1307-1311.

  45. Camean, A., I.M. Moreno, M.J. Ruiz & Y. Pico. 2004. Determination ofmicrocystins in natural blooms and cyanobacterial strain cultures by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chroma- tography-mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 380: 537-544.

  46. Cannel, R.J.P., S.J. Kellam, A.M. Owsianka & J.M. Walker. 1988. Results of a large-scale screen of microalgae for the production of protease inhibitors. Planta Med. 54: 10-14.

  47. Carey, C.C., J.F. Haney & K.L. Cottingham. 2007. First report of microcystin-LR in the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata. Environ. Toxicol. 22(3): 337-339.

  48. Carmichael, W.W. 1997. The cyanotoxins. Adv. Bot. Res. 27: 211-256.

  49. Carmichael, W.W., M.F. Azevedo et al. 2001. Human fatalities from Cyanobacteria: chemical and biological evidence for cyanotoxins. Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(7): 663-668.

  50. Castenholz, R.W. 2001. General characteristics of the cyanobacteria. Pp. 1474-1487 in: Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology / Ed. by D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz. New York, Springer Verlag.

  51. Cazenave J., D.A. Wunderlin, M. Bistoni et al. 2005. Uptake, tissue distribution and accumulation of microcystin-RR in Corydoras paleatus, Jenynsia multidentata and Odontesthes bonariensis. A field and laboratory study. Aquatic Toxicol. 75(2): 178-190.

  52. Chen, J. & P. Xie. 2005. Tissue distributions and seasonal dynamics of the hepatotoxic microcystins-LR and -RR in two freshwater shrimps, Palaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis, from a large shallow, eutrophic lake of the subtropical China. Toxicon 45(5): 615-625.

  53. Devlin, J.P., O.E. Edwards, P.R. Gorham et al. 1977. Anatoxin-a, a toxic alkaloid from Anabaena flos-aquae NCR-44h. Canad. J. Chem. 55: 1367-1371.

  54. Ding, W.-X., H.-M. Shen, M. Zhu et al. 1999. Genotoxicity of microcystic cyanobacteria extract of a water source in China. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen. 442(2): 69-77.

  55. Fitzgerald, D.J., D.A. Cunliffe & M.D. Burch. 1999. Development of health alerts for cyano-bacteria and related toxins in drinking water in South Australia. Environ. Toxicol. 14(1): 203-209.

  56. Giani, A., D.F. Bird, Y.T. Prairie & J.F. Lawrence. 2005. Empirical study of cyanobacterial toxicity along atrophic gradient of lakes. Canad. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 62(9): 2100-2109.

  57. Gromov, B.V., A.A. Vepritsky, K.A. Mamkaeva & L.N. Voloshko. 1996. A survey of toxicity ofcyanobacterial blooms in Lake Ladoga and adjacent water bodies. Hydrobiologia 322(1-3): 149-151.

  58. Harada, K-I., K. Tsuji & M.F. Watanabe. 1996. Stability of microcystins from Cyanobacteria - III. Effect of pH and temperature. Phycologia 35(6): 83-88.

  59. Jones, G.J. & A.P. Negri. 1997. Persistence and degradation of cyanobacterial paralytic shell-fish poisons (PSPs) in freshwaters. Water Res. 31(3): 525-533.

  60. Kameyama, K., N. Sugiura, Y. Inamori & T. Maekawa. 2004. Characteristics of microcystin production in the cell cycle of Microcystis viridis. Environ. Toxicol. 19(1): 20-25.

  61. Kardinal, W.E.A. & P.M. Visser. 2005. Dynamics of cyanobacteria toxins. Sources ofvariability in microcystin concentrations. Pp. 41-63 in: Harmful cyanobacteria / Ed. by J. Huisman, H. C. P. Matthijs, P. M. Visser. Dordrecht: Spinger.

  62. Kirpenko, N.I., Yu.G. Krot & O.M. Usenko. 2019. Surface waters "blooms" - fundamental and applied aspects. Hydrobiol. J. 55(2): 18-30.

  63. Kleeberg, A. 2003. Re-assessment of Wundsch's (1940) "H2S-Oscillatoria Lake" type using the eutrophic Lake Scharmutzel (Brandenburg, NE Germany) as an example. Hydrobiologia 501(1-3): 1-5.

  64. Klochenko, P.D., T.F. Shevchenko & G.V. Kharchenko. 2015. Structural organization of phytoplankton in the thickets and in the sections free of vegetation in the lakes of Kiev. Hydrobiol. J. 51(3): 45-60.

  65. Kotak, B.G., A.K.Y. Lam, E.E. Prepas et al. 1995. Variability of the hepatotoxin micro-cystin-LR in hypereutrophic drinking water lakes. J. Phycol. 27: 248-263.

  66. Krevs, A., J. Koreiviene & S. Mazeikaite. 2010. Plankton food web structure during cyano-bacteria bloom in the highly eutrophic Lake Gineitiskes. Ekologija 56(1-2): 47-54.

  67. Lahti, K., J. Rapala & M. Fardig. 1997. Persistence of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, micro-cystin-LR in particulate material and dissolved in lake water. Water Res. 31(5): 1005-1012.

  68. Lepisto, L., J. Rapala., Ch. Lyra et al. 2005. Occurrence and toxicity of cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Anabaena lemmermannii P. Richter and Aphanizomenon spp. in boreal lakes in 2003. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. Vol. 117: 315- 328.

  69. Mahmood, N.A. & W.W. Carmichael. 1987. Anatoxin-a(s), an anticholinesterase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae NH-5. Toxicon25: 1221-1227.

  70. Mankiewicz, J., Z. Walter, M. Tarcylska et al. 2000. Apoptotic effect of cyanobacterial blooms collected from Polish water reservoirs. Intern. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health. 13(4): 335-344.

  71. Matsumada, S., R.E. Moore, W.P. Niemezura & W.W. Carmichael. 1989. Anatoxin-a(s), apo tent anticholinesterase from Anabaena flos-aquae. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 11: 8021-8023.

  72. McElhiney, J. & L.A. Lawton. 2005. Detection of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxins micro-cystins. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 203(3): 219-230.

  73. McGregor, G.B., I. Stewart, B.C. Sendall et al. 2012. First report of a toxic Nodularia spumigena (Nostocales/Cyanobacteria) bloom in sub-tropical Australia. Intern. J. Environ Res. Public Health. 9(7): 2396-2411.

  74. Meriluoto, J.A.O. & J.E. Eriksson. 1988. Rapid analysis of peptide toxins in cyanobacteria. J. Chromatogr. A. 438: 93-99.

  75. Msagati, T.A.M., B.A. Siame, D.D. Shushu. 2006. Evaluation of methods for the isolation, detection and quantification of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. Review. Aquatic Toxicol. 78(4): 382-397.

  76. Namikoshi, M., K.L. Rinehart, R. Sakai et al. 1992. Identification of 12 hepatotoxins from a Homer lake bloom of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis viridis, Micro- cystis wesenbergii: nine new microcystins. J. Org. Chem. 57: 866-872.

  77. Namikoshi, M. & K.L. Rinehart. 1996. Bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. J. Industr. Microbiol. Biotechn. 17: 373-384.

  78. Oberemm, A., J. Becker, G.A. Codd & C. Steinberg. 1999. Effects of cyanobacterial toxins and aqueous crude extracts of cyanobacteria on the development of fish and amphibians. Environ. Toxicol. 14(1): 77-88.

  79. Oh, H.-M., S.J. Lee, M.-H. Jang & B.-D. Yoon. 2000. Microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa in a phosphorus-limited chemostat. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(1): 176-179.

  80. Osborne, N.J., P.M. Webb & G.R. Shaw. 2001. The toxins of Lyngbya majuscula and their human and ecological health effects. Environ. Intern. 27(5): 381-392.

  81. Park, H.-D., B. Kim & E. Kim. 1998. Hepatotoxic microcystins and neurotoxic anatoxin-a in cyanobacterial blooms from Korean Lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual. 13(3): 225-234.

  82. Rantala, A., D.P. Fever, M. Hisbergues et al. 2004. Phylogenetic evidence for the early evolution of microcystin syntesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101(2): 568-573.

  83. Rantala, A., P. Rajaniemi-Wacklin, C. Lyra et al. 2006. Detection of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in Finnish lakes with genus-specific microcystin synthetase gene E (mcyE) PCR and associations with environmental factors. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72(9): 6101-6110.

  84. Rapala, J., K. Sivonen, R. Luukhainen & S.I. Niemela. 1993. Anatoxin-a concentration in Anabaena and Aphanizomenon at different environmental conditions and comparison of growth by toxic and non-toxic Anabaena strains, a laboratory study. J. Appl. Phycol. 5: 581-591.

  85. Rouhiainen, L., T. Vakkilainen, B.L. Siemer et al. 2004.Genes coding for hepatotoxic hepta-peptides (microcystins) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena strain 90. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 686-692.

  86. Sivonen, K. &T. Borner. 2008. Bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Pp. 158-197 in: The Cyanobacteria molecular biology, genomics and evolution / Ed. by A. Herrero, E. Flores. Norfolk: Kaiser Academic Press.

  87. Sivonen, K. & G. Jones. 1999. Cyanobacterial toxins. Pp. 41-111 in: Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and management / Ed. by I. Chorus, J. Bartram. London: E & FN Spoon on behalf of the WHO.

  88. Skulberg, O.M. 2005. Cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin research-looking back for the future: the opening lecture of the 6th ICTC, Bergen, Norway. Environ. Toxicol. 20(3): 220-228.

  89. Skulberg, O.M., B. Underdal & H. Utkilen. 1994. Toxic water blooms with cyanophytes in Norway - current knowledge. Algol. Studies 75: 279-289.

  90. Stevens, D.K. & R.I. Krieger. 1991. Stability studies on the cyanobacterial nicotinic alkaloid anatoxin-a. Toxicon29: 167-179.

  91. Teneva, I., P. Stoyanov, D. Belkinova et al. 2012.Productionof cyanobacterial toxins from two Nostoc species (Nostocales) and evaluation of their cytotoxicity in vitro. J. BioSci. Biotech. 1: 33-43.

  92. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management / Ed. by I. Chorus, J. Bartram. 1999.London: E & FN Spoon on behalf of the WHO. 416 pp.

  93. Tsuji, K., T. Watanuki, F. Kondo et al. 1997. Stability of microcystins from cyanobacteria - IV. Effect of chlorination on decomposition. Toxicon 35(7): 1033-1041.

  94. Ueno, Y. & S.Nagata. 1997. ELISA analysis of microcystins, algal hepatotoxins, in environmental water. Ibid. 35(4): 482-483.

  95. Van Ginkel, C.E., M.J. Silberbauer, S. du Plessis & C.I.C. Carelsen. 2006. Monitoring microcystin toxin and chlorophyll in five South African impoundments. Verh. Int. Ver. theor. Angew. Limnol. 29(3): 1611-1616.

  96. Voloshko, L.N., J. Kopecky, A.V. Pljusch et al. 2008. Toxins and other bioactive compounds produced by Cyanobacteria in Lake Ladoga. Estonian J. Ecology 57(2): 100-110.

  97. Welker, M. & H.V. Dohren. 2006.Cyanobacterial peptides - nature's own combinatorial biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30(4): 530-563.

  98. WHO/EOS/98. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Vol. 2: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information. Addendum. 1998. Geneva. World Health Organization. 283 pp.

  99. WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 4th ed. 2011. Malta, World Health Organization. 564 pp.

  100. Xu, Y., Z. Wu, B. Yu et al. 2008. Non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek (Cyanobacteria) representing a main waterbloom-forming species in Chinese waters. Environ. Pollut. 156(1): 162-167.

  101. Yea, S.S., H.M. Kim, H.-M. Oh et al. 2001. Microcystin-induced down-regulation of lympho-cyte functions through reduced IL-2 mRNA stability. Toxicol. Lett. 122(1): 21-31.

  102. Zilliges, Y., J.-Ch. Kehr, S. Meissner et al. 2011. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin binds to proteins and increases the fitness of Microcystis under oxidative stress conditions. PLOSOne 6(3): 1-11.


Articles with similar content:

Triclosan in Hydroecosystems (a Review)
Hydrobiological Journal, Vol.52, 2016, issue 4
D. O. Yanovych, T. M. Shvets
Cyanoprokaryota in Plankton of the Rivers and Lakes of Omsk Priirtyshye (Russia)
International Journal on Algae, Vol.16, 2014, issue 2
N. N. Barsukova, O.O. Krenc, O. P. Bazhenova, L.V. Korzhova, O. A. Konovalova
Comparative Studies on Hydrocarbon Complexes of Desmodesmus Armatus (Chod.) Hegew. (Chlorophyta) under Conditions of its Cultivation in Axenic and Unialgal Cultures
Hydrobiological Journal, Vol.44, 2008, issue 2
A. V. Kureyshevich, V. P. Guseynova, Ye. V. Borisova
Influence of UV-Radiation on the Content of Chlorophyll a and on the Intensity of Phytoplankton Photosynthesis in Water Bodies of Various Types
Hydrobiological Journal, Vol.46, 2010, issue 5
A. V. Kureyshevich, A. V. Kalinovskaya, O. A. Sosnovskaya, P. D. Klochenko
Para-Hydroxybenzoates (Parabenes) in the Aquatic Ecosystems: Risks for Hydrobiocenoses (a Review)
Hydrobiological Journal, Vol.54, 2018, issue 2
D. O. Yanovych, T. M. Shvets