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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Facteur d'impact: 2.9 Facteur d'impact sur 5 ans: 3.72 SJR: 0.573 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Imprimer: 0743-4863
ISSN En ligne: 2162-660X

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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2016012303
pages 489-567

Shielding Therapeutic Drug Carriers from the Mononuclear Phagocyte System: A Review

Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy
GIET School of Pharmacy, Rajahmundry Andhra Pradesh, India
Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
GIET School of Pharmacy, Rajahmundry Andhra Pradesh, India

RÉSUMÉ

The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) defends the body against the invasion of microorganisms by phagocytosis. In the presence of opsonins, the invading matter is readily recognized by phagocytes because of the interaction between receptors on the phagocytic cell surfaces and the modified conformation of opsonins. The particulate carriers, which are otherwise capable of optimizing drug delivery, are subjected to opsonization and phagocytosis by the MPS immediately following intravenous administration. These drug carriers should remain in the bloodstream in order to spatially locate the drug to the target site and temporally control the drug's release from there on; however, they are devastated by opsonization by serum proteins. Therefore, to restrict opsonization, which is critical for recognition of particulate carriers by the MPS, stealth devices have been developed by engineering the carriers' surface characteristics. Physicochemical properties that influence protein immunogenicity include particle size, surface charge, and surface hydrophobicity. Steric stabilization using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains attached to the particle surface is principally effective in preventing the adsorption of serum opsonins. This article reviews the literature on the MPS and its development and functions, as well as approaches for designing long-circulating carrier particles. It also comprehensively reviews parameters affecting the steric characteristics of drug carriers, such as particle size, shape, surface charge, and surface affinity, including PEGylation of carriers.


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